• “Related to the authoritarian theory but its main difference is that under the Soviet-Communist system, the state owns or in some way controls all forms of mass media directly.”
• The authority of all mass communications is in the hands of a small group of party leaders. The part in which the media plays in the Soviet Communist Theory is that the media was responsible for bringing to surface the concerns of the working class people of the society.
• “Mass media play down negatives under communism while playing up negatives in democratic countries such as China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam.”
• Although closely related to the authoritarian theory, Soviet-Communist theory stands own it’s because it’s the positive outlook.
what do you think of THE SOVIET
what do you think of SOVIET?
Background• Marxist tradition has displayed authoritarianism, fixedness, a tendency to
make hard and sharp distinction between right and wrong, an amazing confidence in explaining great areas of human behavior on the basis of a small set of economic facts.
• The dialectic of social change: Marx argued that the material conditions of life determine man’s ideas. In other words, economics is the central factor of the life of man.
• The goal: a classless, stateless society Rather, the Communist press would be
conceived as an instrument to interpret the doctrine, to carry out the policies of the
working class or the militant party.
Again, it is clear from what Marx wrote about materialistic determinism that he felt the control
of the press would rest with those who owned the facilities——the presses, the paper,
the broadcasting stations.
The Development through Lenin and Stalin
• The media should be used as instruments:
1. be controlled by the state through control of the material facilities of communication.
2. convey the “word” as interpreted by the Kremlin.
FOREGROUND: Mass communications in the Soviet state
• From the Soviet point of view, absolute freedom is impossible.
• From the Soviet point of view, what is worth while is freedom to say what they conceive to be truth.
• Therefore, in the Soviet Union no freedom against the state can be permitted.
• By owning the facilities, the Soviet guarantees access, and eliminates concealed class controls.
• Freedom and responsibility are inseparably linked in Soviet theory.
Mass communications are used as an instrument of the state and the Party; as responsible instruments: responsibility and freedom.
Question:Soviet mass communications do not have integrity of their own???
The system grows out of the theory
• The printed media: Soviet newspaper are a specialized press. Soviet press is a planned press.
• Broadcasting: Soviet broadcasting will talk to its audiences. The Party controls all broadcasting 1. by inserting its own reliable members in all key appointments. 2. by issuing a large number of directives and instructions. 3. by constant review and criticism.
• Film: the basic assignment to the film was the same as that of press and broadcast—— to serve as propagandist, agitator, organizer.
Q: What shall we say of the relation of the Soviet concept and system to our own?