SpLD in Adulthood

  • View
    238

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Specific Learning Difficulties in adulthood

Text of SpLD in Adulthood

  • Specific Learning Difficulties in Adulthood

    Transition into employment

    Professor Amanda Kirby

  • How do you support anyone?

    Challenges Skills

    Setting Past

    experiences

    outcome

  • ICF-CY (WHO)

  • The truth

  • SPECIFIC LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ARE NOT IN NEAT BOXES.

  • anxietydyscalculia

    ASD

    ADHD

    DCDDyslexia

    SLI

  • anxietydyscalculia

    ASD

    ADHD

    DCDDyslexia

    SLI

    multidisciplinary teams tend to work in parallel rather than as a team when working with clients

    (McGonnell et al, 2009).

  • anxietydyscalculia

    ASD

    ADHD

    DCDDyslexia

    SLI

  • 12

  • 27%

    19%3%

    9%

    12%

    3%8% 19%

    DCD Only

    DCD + Dyslexia

    DCD + Dyslexia + ADHD

    DCD + Dyslexia + ASD

    DCD + ADHD

    DCD + ADHD + ASD

    DCD + ASD

    DCD + ASD + ADHD + Dyslexia

  • DCD and Dyslexia

    12,950 children aged 10-11 years tested on a series of motor tasks.

    In the group who measured the highest rates of literacy difficulties (2% of the total) 35.3% failed one motor task ( reading group) v

    26.8% in td group

    16.4% more than one v 7.7% td group( Haslum and Miles ( 2007).

  • DCD and Dyslexia

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

    1 motor diff

    2 or more

    td

    reading diff

  • DCD and Dyslexia

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    M-ABC Man Dex Ball Balance

    Dyslexia

    Poor readers

    Controls

    NorwayIversen,et al, Dyslexia,2005.

  • Kirby and Salmon,2007

    DCD+ ADHD

  • ADHD + Dyslexia

    25%-

    40%3-6%3-6%

    Early manifestation of delayed language & inattention

  • ADHD + Dyslexia + DCD

    A Canadian population study (Kaplan, Crawford, Wilson & Dewey, 1997)

    Out of those showing DCD had also 25 % ADHD +Dyslexia

    22% + Dyslexia

    10% + ADHD

    Additional work by (Biederman, Faraone, Mick, Moore, & Lelon, 1996,OHare and Khalid 2002)

    Kadesjo and Gillberg (2001) found that 47% of their ADHD children also had DCD

  • ADHD + Aspergers

    21% of children with severe ADHD met criteria for Aspergers syndrome

    36% showed autistic traits

    (Fitzgerald and Corvin, 2001)

  • Executive functioning

    The self management system of the brain

    A cluster of skills that are necessary for efficient and effective future-orientated behaviour(Welsh, cited in Diamantopoulou et al, 2007)

    Not accounted for by IQ ( Martel et al, 2007)

    ( Barkley, Brown, Du Paul)

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • What is executive functioning?

    Involved in handling novel situations outside the domain of some of our 'automatic' psychological processes that could be explained by the reproduction of learned schemas or set behaviours.

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • Executive functioning

    Role in:

    planning

    setting priorities

    organizing thoughts

    suppressing impulses

    weighing the consequences of one's actions

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • Prefrontal cortex

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 1.Self activation/Initiation

    Getting going.. (Especially the boring stuff)

    Procrastination

    Poor time estimation

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 2.Working memory

    The brains RAM- holding information in your mind while making links

    Short term memory-what has just been said, remembering a sequence

    Listening to someone talking to you while remembering you need to turn out the light before going

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 3. Effort- Remembering to remember

    Internal prompts

    after I have finished this I need to do that...

    Frustrating forgetting important things seen to be lazy/cant be bothered..

    Regulating alertness..completing tasks, sleep pattern (cant shut off)

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 4.Emotional self control/Action

    Thinking and not acting

    Taking others perspective into account

    Managing frustrations and modulating emotions

    keeping things in perspective

    impulsive, not considering the context, cant adjust pace The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011

    Amanda Kirby

  • 5. Focus

    Ability to sustain focus but be able to shift to another task

    Reading over and over

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 6. Hindsight and foresight

    Learning from past experiences

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • 7.Time concepts

    Time blindness

    Time passing

    Remembering to do the diary

    Allocating time

    Moving on

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • EF has developmental stagesBuilding Blocks

    (Diamond et al,2007)

    Inhibitory control

    Selective attention

    Working Memory

    Planning

    Age years

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • EF is a core element of all Specific Learning Difficulties

    ADHD all ADHD children have EF impairment to varying degrees (Barkley 2001)

    ASD Pennington and Ozonoff (1996) found children performed 1 SD below control group on EF tasks

    DCD children impaired on tests of working memory (Alloway & Temple, 2007)

    Dyslexia studies have found WM deficits that compound their phonological problems (Wolf 2010)

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

  • Executive Functioning/Study Skills in students in higher education

    Data capture for the 6 EF domains (planning, organisation, impulse control, working memory, metacognition and time management)Additional 20-item list captured the use of tools - if any to guide

    students to be more organised (e.g. Using a diary, software etc..)

    Analysis:Descriptive statistics to describe student sampleChi squared cross-tabulation / analysis of variance to compare

    diagnosis groups

  • Executive Functioning skills deficits in students

    in higher education

    Participants:

    353 students completed the survey

  • The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

    Frequency% (n)

    Male% (n)

    Female% (n)

    Mean Age(sd)

    DCD 6.1 (20) 35.0 (7) 65.0 (13) 23.90 (5.59)

    Dyslexia 16.8 (55) 52.7 (29) 47.3 (26) 24.85 (8.83)

    DCD and Dyslexia 4.0 (13) 38.5 (5) 61.5 (8) 25.77 (9.63)

    No formal diagnosis but difficulties

    56.4 (185) 59.0 (108) 41.0 (75) 26.86 (9.68)

    No formal diagnosis 16.8 (55) 21.8 (12) 78.2 (43) * 27.17 (8.55)

    Significantly more females with difficulties but no diagnosis

  • 010

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Planning Organisation Impulse Control Working Memory Metacognition Time Management

    %

    DCD

    DCD/Dys

    Dyslexia

    No diag/diff

    No diagnosis

  • Results Using study tools

    Significant differences between TD and SpLD groups ( P= < 0.01)

    The Dyscovery Centre copyright 2011 Amanda Kirby

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    never have study partner Never use End Note/Ref manager Don't use past papers for revision

    SPLD %

    TD %

  • What are specific learning difficulties?

  • Dyslexia is a literacy and language difficulty. It is a life long condition and affects approximately 10% of the population. Individuals with Dyslexia have difficulties with reading and spelling and may also have difficulties with organisation and planning.

    Dyslexia

  • Literacy and language difficulties associated with Dyslexia may affect reading, note taking in meetings, writing and structuring documents, remembering instructions, copying notes, learning new vocabulary, remembering instructions, spelling and reading speed.

    Symptoms and signs

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a spectrum of lifelong developmental disabilities that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. ASD includes Autism, AspergerSyndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.

    ASD affects around 1 in 100 people. The spectrum element of the disorder means that while all people with ASDs share certain difficulties, their condition will affect them in different ways and to varying degrees. The three main areas of difficulty for all people on the Autistic Spectrum include difficulties with social interaction, social communication and social imagination.

    ASD

  • May appear very able but face difficulties in getting to appointments on their own

    Difficulty coping with a change to routine and performing well in interviews.

    Take things literally

    Not recognise others emotions, unless very obvious

    sensory sensitivity or under-sensitivity, for example to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colour.

    Symptoms and signs

  • SLIs affect an individuals ability to learn and use language. The condition affects receptive and expressive language.

    Specific Language Impairment

  • Individuals with SLIs may have difficulties remembering sequences of instructions, taking down telephone numbers or instructions.

    They may appear anxious or angry if they do not understand what is being asked of them.

    They may be withdrawn and find it difficult takin