Stainless Steels Course Transparencies

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  • 1655 (240)

    I 1517 (220) 1379 (200) 1241 (180)

    ' 1103 ~ (160)

    ~ 965 ~ (140) ~ 827 i (120) ' - 690

    (100) 552 (80) 414 (60) 276 (40) 138 (20)

    0

    I I I I Tensile strength -y /

    v / v / v / / I Tensile strength~ / Tensiie strength~ ~

    v v I / / v v

    ./ / ~ ...-I I v / "" ~ "' /

    I / / / v / 71 ,, '-Yield strength I y (0.2 % offset)-l I I

    / "-< ~ Elongation

    "" ~ I '-Yield strength -I (0.2% offset)

    "' I

    ..--- Elongation

    v I I' "--Yield strength

    :z (0.2% offset) I I I I

    ."""'

    ' " ........... ~ 1o---- Elongation

    (a) ............. ........... (b) --- -

    ......

    (c) --0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

    Cold work , 0/o Cold work,% Cold work, %

    80

    60 ~ 0 -

    c

    40 .2 0 0' c

    20 .2 w

    0

    igure 1-1. Effecz of cold working on I ensile properzies ofzhree auszenizic szainless szeels. (a) zype 301, (b) zype 302. and :) zype 304.

  • \

    Figure 1-2. An arra_v of machinery pares produced by machining from type 416.

  • Figure 1-3. Fasteners produced by cold heading from a special proprietary grade developed for this application.

    Figure I -4. Ski bindings. made of AJSJ type 630 martensitic stainless steel. which included a conical spring made of several thicknesses of blanked strip, a reactor spring and rollers produced from bar stock. (Courtesy. Carpenter Technology Corp.)

    Figure 1-5. Stainless steel pla.'!S an important role in manufacture of furniture: especially where the furniture is exposed to marine atmospheres.

  • Figure 1-6. A typical array of cooking utensils and cutlery all made from stainless steel. A number of grades are represented here. (Courtesy. Ekco Housewares Co.)

    Figure 1~1. Customer's view of a stainless steel center island setup in a fast-food restaurant. (Courtesv. Bastian-Blessing Co .. Inc.) r-

  • \ / ,,//"'~ :.!~

    Figure 1-8. Needles for hair transplants made from type 303 stainless steel. (Courtesy, Carpenter Technology Corp.)

    Figure 1-9. Stainless laundry equipment. Among the ite,;,s made of stainless are linen chutes. washer cylinders and shells and extractor baskets.

    Figure 1-10. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. Stainless steel sheet on the arch i.! an example of the versatility of a"hitectural design available with stainless steel. The arch rises 195m (630ft.). Many buildings have been built with a sheath of stainless steel. (Courtesy. St. Louis. Missouri. Regional Commerce and Growth Association)

    _j

  • Table 11. Compositions of the Standard Stainless Steels and Some Iron-Base HeatRais11n& Alloys Chemical Composition. pereent (a)

    Type Number c Mn p s Si Cr Ni Mo Other Elements

    AuahlniUc G,.dM 201 0.15 5.50/ 0.080 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 3.50/ ND.25

    7.50 18.00 5.50 202 0.15 7.50/ 0.080 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 4.00/ N0.25

    10.00 19.00 8.00 216' 0.05 7.50/ 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.50/ 5.00/ 2.00/ N 0.25/0.50

    9.00 22.00 7.00 3.00 301 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 6.00/

    18.00 8.00 302 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 8.00/

    19.00 10.00 3028 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.030 2.00/ 17.00/ 8.00/

    3.00 19.00 10.00 303 0.15 2.00 0.20 0.15 1.00 17.00{ 8.00/ 0.60(b)

    19.00 10.00 303Se 0.15 2.00 0.20 0.060 1.00 17.00/ 8.00/ Se 0.15 min.

    19.00 10.00 304 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 18.00/ 8.00/

    20.00 10.50 304L 0.030 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 18.00/ 8.00/

    20.00 12.00 305 0.12 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 10.50/

    19.00 13.00 308 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 19.00/ 10.00.

    21.00 12.00 309 0.20 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 22.00/ 12.00/

    24.00 15.00 309S 0.08 2.00 $).045 0.030 1.00 22.00/ 12.00/

    24.00 15.00 310 0.25 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.50 24.00/ 19.00/

    26.00 22.00 310S 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.50 24.00/ 19.00/

    26.00 22.00 314 0.25 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.50/ 23.00/ 19.00/

    3.00 26.00 22.00 316 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 10.00/ 2.00/

    18.00 14.00 3.00 316L 0.030 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 10.00/ 2.00/

    18.00 14.00 3.00 317 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 18.00/ 11.00/ 3.00/

    20.00 15.00 4.00 321 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 9.00/ TI5Cmin

    19.00 12.00 347 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 9.00/ Nb-Ta 10 x C min

    19.00 12.00 348 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 17.00/ 9.00/ Nb-Ta 10 C min

    19.00 13.00 TaO. I, Co0.2 384 0.08 2.00 0.015 0.030 1.00 15.00/ 17.00/

    17.00 19.00 385 0.03 2.00 O.Q15 0.030 1.00 11.50/ 14.00/ Nonstandard grade 13.50 16.00

    Marlen8lllc c.-403 0.15 1.00 0.040 0.030 0.50 11.50/

    13.00 410 0.15 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 11.50/

    13.50

  • Table 1-1. (Continued) Chemical Composition. percent (a)

    Type Number c Mn p s Si Cr Nl Mo Other Elements

    414 0.15 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 11.50/ 1.251 13.50 2.50

    416 0.15 1.25 0.060 0.15 1.00 12.00/ 0.60(b) 14.00

    416Se 0.15 1.25 0.080 0.060 1.00 12.001 Se 0.15 min 14.00

    420 Over 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 12.001 0.15 14.00

    420F Over 1.25 0.060 0.15 1.00 12.00/ 0.60(b) 0.15 14.00

    422 0.20/ 1.00 0.025 0.025 0.75 11.001 0.50/ 0.75/ v 0.1510.30 0.25 13.00 1.00 1.25 W0.7511.25

    431 0.20 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 15.00/ 1.251 17.00 2.50

    440A 0.601 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 0.75 0.75 18.00

    4408 0.75/ 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 0.75 0.95 18.00

    440C 0.95/ 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.001 0.75 1.20 18.00

    FonlllcGradft 405 0.08 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 11.501 AI 0.1.0.3

    14.50 409 0.08 1.00 0.045 0.045 1.00 10.501 0.50 Ti6x C

    11.75 0.75 429 0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 14.001

    16.00 430 0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 18.001

    18.00 430F 0.12 1.25 0.060 0.15 1.00 16.001

    18.00 430F Se 0.12 1.25 0.060 0.060 1.00 16.001 Se0.15 min.

    18.00 434 0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.001 0.751

    18.00 1.25 436 0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 0.75/ Nb-Ta 5 C min,

    18.00 1.25 0.70 max. 442 0.20 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 18.00.

    23.00 448 0.20 1.50 0.040 0.030 1.00 23.001 N 0.25 max.

    27.00 (a) Single values are maximum unless otherwise indicated. (b) May be added at manufactun~rs option.

  • PNCipi .. Uon Honlenlng o.-

    Propriolary nome c Mn Si Cr Nl Mo Other elements

    M .......... cTpe Stain!us W . . . . . . 0.06 0.55 0.60 16.0 7.0 1.0Ti. 1.0AI,0.2 N 17-4 PH ........... 0.07 1.0 1.0 17.0 4.0 4.0 Cu, 0.15/0.45 Nb-Ta PH 13-8 MO ..... 0.05 0.1 0.1 12.5 8.0 2.5 1.1 AI Custom 450 ...... 0.03 0.25 0.25 15.0 6.0 0.8 1.5 Cu, 0.3 Nb Cuotom 455 . . . . . O.D3 0.5 0.5 11.75 8.5 0.5 2.0 Cu, 1.2 Ti, 0.3 Nb-Ta. 0.005 B

    Table 1-J. (Continued)

    Proprietary name c Mn Sl Cr Nl Mo Other elements

    Pyromel X15 ...... 0.03 0.1 0.1 12.5 8.0 2.9 20 Co AM 362 .......... 0.03 0.3 0.2 14.5 6.5 0.8TI AM 736 ...... 0.02 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.3 AI, 0.2 Ti 15-5-PH . . . . . . . . . . . 0.04 1.0 1.0 15.0 4.5 3.4 Cu. 0.25 Nb ACF77 ......... 0.15 0.3 0.25 14.5 10.0 5.0 13.5 Co, 0.5 V

    Semiaustenltfc Type (cantrollecl transfomt~~lfon) 17-7 PH ....... 0.09 1.0 1.0 17.0 7.0 1.0 AI PH 157 Mo .... 0.09 1.0 1.0 15.0 7.0 2.2 1.2 AI PH 14-8 Mo ...... 0.05 0.1 0.1 15.0 8.5 2.5 1.1 AI AM 350 .......... 0.08 0.8 0.25 16.5 4.3 2.75 0.1 N AM 355 ......... 0.13 0.95 0.25 15.5 4.3 2.75 0.1 N

    Au~en~t~c Tr .. A 286 ............ 0.08 1.4 0.4 15.0 26.0 1.3 0.3 V, 2.0 Ti. 0.35 AI. 0.003 B HNM .............. 0.3 3.5 0.5 18.5 9.5 0.25 p 17-10 p ........... 0.1 0.6 0.5 17.0 11.0 0.3 p

  • Table 1-2. Major Variations From tbelluic Types or Staialeos Steels AJSITypo

    301 . 302 ..... . 3028 ... . 303 ..... . 303 Sa .. * :IOOL 305 308

    309

    309 CT . 3095 ... 310 314 .... .. 316 ..... . 316L .... . 311

    Changes in analyses from blsic type

    -----Cr and Ni lower for more wortc hardening 8atcTJP1-Cr1ft-Nin. Sl higher for more acallng resistance P ancs S added tor euier machining Se added to improve rn.Chlnabtlity C lower to avoid carbide precipitation c lower ror welding application Ni higher for Ina work hardening Cr and Ni higher with C low for more corrosion and scaling resistance Cr and Ni still higher tor mon1 corro~ion and sealing resistance Nb. Ta added to avoid carbide preciphatlon Clower to avoid carbide precipitlltion Cr and Nl higt'lest to Increase scaling resistance Si higher 10 increase scaling resistance Mo added tor more corroaion ,_latance C lower for welding application Mo higher tor more corrosion Mttance and gre.ter strength at high tempe,.tures

    318 Nb;Ta added to avoid carbide precipitalion 321 Ti added to avoid carbide precipitation 341' Nb. Ta added to avoid carbide precipitation 347 S. .. Se added to improve machinability 348 ...... Similar to 347, but low tantalum content (0. 10) 384 .... Ni higher ttt.n 306 for eevere cold hucllng 385 ... Similar to 384 but lower Cr and Nl

    -tllc-Ch ..... __ _ 201 Cr and Nl rower for rnor. walk hardening 202 ll88lc 1)pe - Cr 18~ - Ni ~ - Mn R

    Data courtesy Allegheny Ludlum SlMI Corporation

    AISI Type

    204 204L .. 216 .....

    403 410 .,.

    416 416 Sa .. 1a Spec 420 ..... 420F ... 422

    431

    440.0 4408 440C 440Se ..

    405 ... 430 .30F .... . ll30 n .. . 442 "6 ......

    Changes In analyses from basic type

    C lower to avoid carbide precipitation C rower for welding application Mo and N added for improved pttling resistance -tie- SIJolthl a. ..... _

    Cr 1~ adjusted for spec~ mechanical properties 8ulc TrJIO- Cr I~ Nl added to increan corrosion resistance and mechaniCII propertiu P and S added ror easlet machining S. added to lmprov. machinability W added to Improve high temperature properties C higher for cuning purposes P and S added ror euler machining Mo. V. and W added for strength and. toughness to 650"C (1200"F)