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Sto Hrvati, Bošnjaci i Srbi misle jedni o drugima, a što o ... · PDF fileŠto Hrvati, Bošnjaci i Srbi misle jedni o drugima, a što o Bosni i Hercegovini? Izdavač: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung

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  • to Hrvati, Bonjaci i Srbi misle jedni o drugima, a to o Bosni i Hercegovini?

    Izdava: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung

    Autor: dr.sc. Boo Skoko

    Za izdavaa: Dr. Paul Pasch

    Lektura: Amra Meki

    Korice: Aleksandar Anii

    tampa: Amosgraf d.o.o. Sarajevo

    Tira: 300 primjeraka

    Sva prava pridrana od strane: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung BiH

  • dr. sc. Boo Skoko

    to Hrvati, Bonjaci i Srbi misle jedni o drugima, a to o

    Bosni i Hercegovini?

    Sarajevo, 2011.

  • Miljenja koja su izraena u ovoj publikaciji predstavljaju iskljuivo miljenja autora, i ne moraju nuno odraavati stavove Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

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    Sadraj

    Predgovor ..................................................................................................................... 6

    A summary of the results of survey of perceptions, stereotypes and images among the citizens Bosnia and Herzegovina ..................................................7

    Saetak rezultata istraivanja percepcije, stereotipa i imida meu graanima Bosne i Hercegovine ....................................................................... 15

    1. Uvod ...................................................................................................... 21

    2. Teorijski okvir razumijevanja predrasuda, stereotipa i imida .....................232.1. Imid .................................................................................................................232.2. Percepcija .........................................................................................................272.3. Predrasude ........................................................................................................282.4. Stereotipi .......................................................................................................... 31

    3. Ranija istraivanja etnike distance i stereotipa meu Bonjacima, Hrvatima i Srbima .................................................................37

    4. Metodologija i rezultati istraivanja ........................................................ 404.1. Koliko nam je vana neija nacionalnost? ....................................................... 404.2. Mi i drugi kroz stereotipe .................................................................................444.3. to nas smeta kod drugih naroda a zbog ega im se divimo? .........................474.4. to bi trebali uiniti drugi, da promijenimo stav prema njima? ...................... 604.5. Tko je odgovoran za sukobe u Bosni i Hercegovini? ........................................634.6. Imid Bosne i Hercegovine iz perspektive njezinih naroda .............................664.7. Percepcija meusobnih odnosa tri naroda u Bosni i Hercegovini ....................684.8. Kako poboljati situaciju u Bosni i Hercegovini? ............................................. 71

    5. Zakljuak ...............................................................................................73

    6. Literatura ..............................................................................................77

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    Predgovor

    Fondacija Friedrich Ebert je, prije poetka predizborne kampanje u Bosni i Hercegovini, u saradnji sa Boom Skokom, profesorom na Fakultetu politikih znanosti Sveuilita u Zagrebu i strunjakom za nacionalni identitet i imid, sprovela anketno istraivanje s ciljem da utvrdimo kako se pripadnici triju naroda u Bosni i Hercegovini meusobno percipiraju, ta optereuje njihove meusobne odnose, koliko su uistinu spremni ivjeti jedni s drugima te kako percipiraju zajedniku dravu.

    Istraivanje je pokazalo kako se Bonjaci, Hrvati i Srbi, iako stoljeima ive u istoj dravi, relativno slabo poznaju i zanimaju za druge, te kako je njihova meusobna percepcija jo optereena stereotipima iz prolosti te ratnim do-gaanjima. Odnosi meu narodima, pokazalo je ovo istraivanje, nisu dobri i optereeni su meusobnim nepovjerenjem.

    U ovom prvom dijelu studije, koja bi trebalo da obuhvati pitanje imida Bosne i Hercegovine i pronalaenje naina za njegovo poboljanje, istraivali smo ta jedni drugima zamjeraju, ime su optereeni meusobni odnosi meu narodima u BiH i utvrdili da, uslovno govorei, najbolji imid u BiH imaju Hrvati a meusobno se najnegativnije vide Srbi i Bonjaci.

    U narednom koraku elimo otii dalje i pokuati dati smjernice za strategiju upravljanja imidom nae zemlje. Nedvojbeno je kako imid Bosne i Hercegovine utie na njen poloaj u meunarodnoj zajednici, nova ulaganja, turistike posjete.

    Imati strategiju upravljanja imidom znai tano znati koje talente, kva-litete ili prednosti posjedujemo, znati ih iskoristiti i pokazati svijetu. To pret-postavlja utvrivanje temeljnih elemenata identiteta Bosne i Hercegovine, utvrivanje naina formiranja i kreiranja imida Bosne i Hercegovine u meu-narodnoj javnosti, istraivanje temeljnih elemenata imida BiH u susjednim dravama, prvenstveno Hrvatskoj i Srbiji.

    Koliko je ovaj put uzbudljiv, pun neizvjesnosti i nimalo lak svjedoi ova stu-dija kojom smo otvorili proces koji bi trebalo da doprinese poboljanju odnosa meu narodima u samoj BiH, te poboljanju imida nae zemlje u okruenju i meunarodnoj javnosti.

    Tanja Topi, Fondacija Friedrich Ebert BiH

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    What Croats, Bosniaks and Serbs think of each other and what do they think about

    Bosnia and Herzegovina?

    A summary of the results of survey of perceptions, stereotypes and images among the citizens Bosnia and

    Herzegovina

    In spite of the efforts invested by the international community to overcome divisions and differences among the three constituent peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mutual tensions are still present, sincere cooperation between Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs is relative-ly law, and there are no common positions either about the past, or about the future of this state. At the last elections, national parties have achieved great success again, while ethnic interests came to the fore even in the rhetoric of the parties that, until recently, claimed to be multi-ethnic and to represent all the citizens of the country. Due to all these facts, one may conclude that it is exceptionally difficult to carry out the announced constitutional changes and reforms that would secure a desired coexistence without respecting ethnic dif-ferences, given the nature of mutual relations among the three pe-oples, the abundance of stereotypes, open wounds and reasons for mistrust, as well as mutual perception.

    This is the reason why the Banja Luka Office of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, in cooperation with Mr. Boo Skoko, Ph.D., Professor of the Faculty of Political Science of the University of Zagreb and an expert for ethnic identity and image, conducted a field survey on a representative sample of 1,000 citizens of BiH. The aim of this survey, conducted in May 2010, prior to the pre-election campaign, was to establish mutual perceptions of the members of the three peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina, what burdens their mutual relations, to what extent they are truly ready to live together, and how they per-ceive their joint state.

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    The survey has demonstrated that the Bosniaks, the Croats and the Serbs, although they have been living in the same state for cen-turies, have a relatively poor knowledge and interest for each other, and that their mutual perception is still burdened with stereotypes from the past and the recent war. Members of the three peoples are mainly informed from their own media, while most of those media do not broadcast enough information about the others. Travelling, which would contribute most to breaking those stereotypes and would foster mutual understanding, are undertaken relatively rarely within BiH.

    Analysing mutual stereotypes, associations and perceptions, the survey has shown that relations among these peoples are not good enough and that they are burdened with mutual mistrust. The most positive relations perceived are those between the Bosniaks and the Croats, then between the Croats and the Serbs. The worst perceived relations are those between the Bosniaks and the Serbs.

    Conditionally taken, the Croats have the best image in BiH, while the most negative perception is that of the Serbs and the Bosniaks.

    Analysing what individual peoples blame the others for, and what burdens their relations, we have come to the result that the Croats and the Bosniaks have negative opinion about the Serbs be-cause of the war and violence, and that they perceive them as cruel and nationalistic. The Serbs and the Croats perceive the Bosniaks as hypocritical. The Serbs blame them for the war and violence, while the Croats blame them for excessive influence of religiousness on public life. Both Serbs and Croats perceive them as backward. The Serbs and the Bosniaks also have a negative opinion about the Cro-ats because of the war and violence. Furthermore, the Serbs perceive them as arrogant, while the Bosniaks perceive them as hypocritical. Many respondents within both these peoples perceive