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String Matching String matching: definition of the problem (text,pattern)depends on what we have: text or patterns Exact matching: Approximate matching: 1 pattern ---> The algorithm depends on |p| and || k patterns ---> The algorithm depends on k, |p| and || The text ----> Data structure for the text (suffix tree, ...) The patterns ---> Data structures for the patterns Dynamic programming Sequence alignment (pairwise and multiple) Extensions Regular Expressions Probabilistic search: Sequence assembly: hash algorithm Hidden Markov Models

# String Matching String matching: definition of the problem (text,pattern) depends on what we have: text or patterns Exact matching: Approximate matching:

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• Slide 1
• String Matching String matching: definition of the problem (text,pattern) depends on what we have: text or patterns Exact matching: Approximate matching: 1 pattern ---> The algorithm depends on |p| and | | k patterns ---> The algorithm depends on k, |p| and | | The text ----> Data structure for the text (suffix tree,...) The patterns ---> Data structures for the patterns Dynamic programming Sequence alignment (pairwise and multiple) Extensions Regular Expressions Probabilistic search: Sequence assembly: hash algorithm Hidden Markov Models
• Slide 2
• Approximate string matching For instance, given the sequence CTACTACTTACGTGACTAATACTGATCGTAGCTAC search for the pattern ACTGA allowing one error but what is the meaning of one error?
• Slide 3
• Edit distance We accept three types of errors: The edit distance d between two strings is the minimum number of substitutions,insertions and deletions needed to transform the first string into the second one d(ACT,ACT)= d(ACT,AC)=d(ACT,C)= d(ACT,)= d(AC,ATC)= d(ACTTG,ATCTG)= 3. Deletion: ACCGTGAT ACCGGAT 2. Insertion: ACCGTGAT ACCGATGAT 1. Mismatch: ACCGTGAT ACCGAGAT Indel
• Slide 4
• Edit distance We accept three types of errors: The edit distance d between two strings is the minimum number of substitutions,insertions and deletions needed to transform the first string into the second one 3. Deletion: ACCGTGAT ACCGGAT 2. Insertion: ACCGTGAT ACCGATGAT 1. Mismatch: ACCGTGAT ACCGAGAT d(ACT,ACT)= d(ACT,AC)=d(ACT,C)= d(ACT,)= d(AC,ATC)= d(ACTTG,ATCTG)= Indel 012 312
• Slide 5
• Edit distance and alignment of strings ACT and ACT : ACT ACT ACTTG and ATCTG: ACT and AT: ACT A -T ACTTG ATCTG ACT - TG A - TCTG Given d(ACT,ACT)=0 d(ACT,AC)=1 d(ACTTG,ATCTG)=2 which is the best alignment in every case? The Edit distance is related with the best alignment of strings Then, the alignment suggest the substitutions, insertions and deletions to transform one string into the other
• Slide 6
• Edit distance and alignment of strings But which is the distance between the strings ACGCTATGCTATACG and ACGGTAGTGACGC? and the best alignment between them? 1966 was the first time this problem was discussed and the algorithm was proposed in 1968,1970, using the technique called Dynamic programming
• Slide 7
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A
• Slide 8
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A
• Slide 9
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A The cell contains the distance between AC and CTACT.
• Slide 10
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A ?
• Slide 11
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 A C T G A ?
• Slide 12
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 A C T G A - C ?
• Slide 13
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 A C T G A - - CT ?
• Slide 14
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A C T G A - - - - - - CTACTA
• Slide 15
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A ? C ? T ? G A
• Slide 16
• Edit distance and alignment of strings C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 1 C 2 T 3 G A ACT - - -
• Slide 17
• C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 1 C 2 T 3 G A C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A Edit distance and alignment of strings BA(AC,CTA) - C BA(A,CTA) CCCC BA(A,CTAC) C - BA(AC,CTAC)= best d(AC,CTAC)=min d(AC,CTA)+1 d(A,CTA) d(A,CTAC)+1
• Slide 18
• C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G A Edit distance and alignment of strings d(A,CTAC)+1 d(AC,CTACT)=minimum d(A,CTA) ..+1 d(AC,CTA)+1 C T A C T A C T A C G T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 1 C 2 T 3 G A
• Slide 19
• Edit distance and alignment of strings Connect to http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/docencia/ember/leed/Tfc1.htm and use the global method.
• Slide 20
• Edit distance and alignment of strings How this algorithm can be applied to the approximate search? to the K-approximate string searching?
• Slide 21
• K-approximate string searching C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A A C T G A This cell
• Slide 22
• K-approximate string searching C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters
• Slide 23
• K-approximate string searching C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters
• Slide 24
• K-approximate string searching * * * * * * C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters no matter where they appears in the text, then
• Slide 25
• K-approximate string searching * * * * * * C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A 0 A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters no matter where they appears in the text, then
• Slide 26
• K-approximate string searching * * * * * * C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A 0 A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters no matter where they appears in the text, then
• Slide 27
• K-approximate string searching C T A C T A C T A C G T A C T G G T G A A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A C T G A This cell gives the distance between (ACTGA, CTGTA) but we only are interested in the last characters no matter where they appears in the text, then
• Slide 28
• K-approximate string searching Connect to http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/docencia/ember/leed/Tfc1.htm and use the semi-global method.

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