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Study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology

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  • Study of interactions between organisms and their environments.Ecology

  • Biotic FactorsBiosphere life-supporting layer of EarthBiotic factors all living organisms in a biosphere

  • Abiotic FactorsNonliving factors in an environmentExamples:Radiation Light Heat (temperature)Wind (air currents) or Water currents in aquatic environmentsWater (moisture)Soil (mineral concentration)Fire

  • Organization of LifeOrganisms(species)PopulationsCommunitiesEcosystemsBiosphere

  • Levels of Organization

  • Feeding RelationshipsAutotrophs can capture energy from sunlightHeterotrophs rely on other organisms for their food and energyHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat animalsOmnivores eat plant and animalsDecomposers break down organic matterSunlight is the main source of energy.

  • Trophic RelationshipsAutotrophs1st level consumers (herbivores)2nd level consumers 3rd level consumers4th level consumers (top predators)

  • Feeding RelationshipsFood chain a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eatenFood web the feeding relationships that form a network of complex interactionsTrophic level each step in a food chain or food web

  • Food Web

  • Ecology PyramidsEnergy pyramid shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level

  • Biomass pyramid represents the amount of living organic mater at each trophic level

  • Pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level

  • RULE OF 10Only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.Example:It takes 100 kgs of plant materials (producers) to support 10 kgs of herbivoresIt takes 10 kgs of herbivores to support 1 kg of 1st level predatorThe other 90% is used up or lost as heat

  • EtymologyEcology: eco- (Gk. OIKOS, house) + -logy (the study of)Abiotic: a- (without) + -biotic (life)Biosphere: bio- (life) + -sphere (L. SPHERA, globe)