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© 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved. TABLE 8.1. Basic Political Characteristics of the Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and Putin Periods Brezhnev (in 1975) Gorbachev (in 1989) Yeltsin (in 1995) Putin (in 2004) Head of the country Secretary-general President of the U.S.S.R. President of the Russian Federation President of the Russian Federation Head of government Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Prime minister Prime minister Prime minister Parliament Supreme Soviet Congress of People’s Deputies Federation Council and Duma Federation Council and Duma Number of parties in parliament One One (later a few) Five or six Three or four Regional governors First secretary (appointed) Appointed (later elected) Elected governors Appointed governors Freedom of press No Limited freedom Free Limited freedom Independent TV No No Yes No Freedom of religion No Limited Yes Yes, except for some new religious movements Wars/conflicts Afghanistan End of Afghanistan, Karabakh, Trans- Dniester Republic Chechnya I Chechnya II Defense alliances Warsaw Pact CIS CIS + NATO partnership CIS + NATO partnership Private economy 0% 5% 20% 75%

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  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    TABLE 8.1. Basic Political Characteristics of the Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and Putin Periods

    Brezhnev (in 1975) Gorbachev (in 1989) Yeltsin (in 1995) Putin (in 2004)

    Head of the country Secretary- general President of the U.S.S.R.

    President of the Russian Federation

    President of the Russian Federation

    Head of government Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

    Prime minister Prime minister Prime minister

    Parliament Supreme Soviet Congress of People’s Deputies

    Federation Council and Duma

    Federation Council and Duma

    Number of parties in parliament

    One One (later a few) Five or six Three or four

    Regional governors First secretary (appointed)

    Appointed (later elected)

    Elected governors Appointed governors

    Freedom of press No Limited freedom Free Limited freedom

    Independent TV No No Yes No

    Freedom of religion No Limited Yes Yes, except for some new religious movements

    Wars/conflicts Afghanistan End of Afghanistan, Karabakh, Trans- Dniester Republic

    Chechnya I Chechnya II

    Defense alliances Warsaw Pact CIS CIS + NATO partnership

    CIS + NATO partnership

    Private economy 0% 5% 20% 75%

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    TABLE 8.2. General Timeline of the Post- Soviet Reforms in Russia

    Dates Main events

    1985 Gorbachev elected secretary- general of C.P.S.U.

    1985–1986 His ill-fated antialcohol campaign.

    April 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in northern Ukraine.

    1987 Beginning of perestroika and glasnost.

    Dec. 1988 First multicandidate elections to the Soviet Parliament.

    1988–1990 Rising nationalism in the Baltics, Georgia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

    June 1991 Ex- Communist Yeltsin elected first president of the R.S.F.S.R.

    Aug. 1991 Hardliners’ 3-day coup.

    Dec. 1991 U.S.S.R. dissolved; Gorbachev resigns; Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) formed with 12 of the 15 former republics as members (the Baltics do not join).

    Jan. 1992 Liberalization of prices; inflation close to 1,000% by year’s end.

    Sept. 1992 First voucher auction.

    Dec. 1992 Reformer Gaidar resigns as the prime minister; “gas man” Chernomyrdin takes office.

    Oct. 1993 Parliamentary crisis in Moscow; Yeltsin sends in tanks.

    Dec. 1993 New constitution gives the president sweeping powers; Duma elected.

    July 1994 Voucher investment scam collapses; millions lose savings.

    Dec. 1994 First war in Chechnya begins.(cont.)

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    TABLE 8.2. (cont.)

    Dates Main events

    Mar. 1995 Loans-for- shares scheme proposed by Potanin, Khodorkovsky, Smolensky.

    Dec. 1995 Communists do very well in Duma elections.

    Feb. 1996 Oligarchs meet in Davos with members of Yeltsin’s circle; they promise political support before upcoming elections.

    May 1996 Chechen rebels take hostages at the Budenovsk hospital; a cease-fire is declared between Chechen and Russian forces.

    June 1996 Yeltsin wins first round of presidential election; he sacks his long-time bodyguard and friend, Korzhakov, at the oligarchs’ instigation.

    July 1996 Yeltsin suffers a massive heart attack, but defeats Zyuganov in the second round of presidential elections.

    Fall 1996 Yeltsin undergoes open-heart surgery; some oligarchs occupy various government positions.

    1997 Russian emergent economy is rattled by the spreading Asian currency crisis; inflation runs about 20% per year.

    Mar. 1998 Chernomyrdin is sacked as prime minister and replaced by young, inexperienced Kiriyenko.

    May 1998 Russian stock market crashes; Chubais and others plead for help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

    July 1998 IMF approves a $22 billion loan for Russia as a bailout; $4.8 billion is disbursed.

    Aug. 1998 Partial default: Ruble is devalued; default on GKO bond payments; temporary moratorium on foreign debts of Russian companies is announced; Kiriyenko is sacked.

    Fall 1998 Primakov comes in as new prime minister, stabilizes situation, and scares oligarchs with promises to put many in jail.

    May 1999 Primakov is dismissed; Stepashin is appointed as transitional prime minister; search for a successor for Yeltsin quietly goes on.

    Aug. 1999 Putin appointed as prime minister and declared heir apparent by the media.

    Sept. 1999 Bombs explode in a few Russian cities; Chechens are blamed (although some evidence indicates that the Federal Security Service is at least complicit), and a new round of war in Chechnya begins.

    Dec. 1999 Yeltsin steps down; Putin becomes acting president.

    Mar. 2000 Putin elected second president of Russian Federation.

    2000 Kasyanov is appointed prime minister; members of Yeltsin’s government are being gradually replaced with personal acquaintances of Putin.

    2001–2002 Growing state control over media: NTV and ORT TV channels are turned over to companies loyal to the Kremlin; their owners, Gusinsky and Berezovsky, flee the country.

    2001–2002 Tax code is streamlined, and a flat tax of 13% is introduced. Seven federal districts are proposed for the country, with each having a personal presidential representative (vertical structure of power).

    Oct. 2003 Richest man in Russia, Khodorkovsky, is put in jail on corruption charges.

    Dec. 2003 Pro-Putin “United Russia” party wins an overwhelming majority of seats in Duma.

    Mar. 2004 Putin easily wins reelection; Fradkov is appointed prime minister.

    Mar. 2008 Medvedev is elected president; Putin becomes prime minister.

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    FIGURE 8.1. A store in a Siberian village today looks still much the same as it did during the late Soviet era, 20 years ago. Prices are now much higher, but there are many more goods on the shelves. The scale on the right is still the old Soviet model. Photo: A. Fristad.

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    Russian Federation

    National territorial units State territorial units

    Autonomous republics—21 (e.g., Tatarstan, Komi,

    Buryat)

    Autonomous okrugs—10 (e.g., Nenets, Chukotka)

    Autonomous oblast—1 (Jewish)

    Krays—6 (e.g., Stavropolsky,

    Krasnoyarsky)

    Oblasts—49 (e.g., Tula, Perm, Irkutsk)

    Federal cities—2 (Moscow and St. Petersburg)

    FIGURE 8.2. Russian Federation administrative units according to the first post- Soviet (1993) constitution (89 units). Since 2000, a few autonomous okrugs have been merged with nearby oblasts or krays (see Vignette 8.2).

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    Zabaykalsky Kray

    Buryatiya Republic

    Irkutsk Oblast

    1

    2

    Magadan Oblast

    Chukotsky AOk

    Sakha Republic (Yakutiya)

    Kamchatsky Kray

    Nenetsky AOk

    Khanty-Mansi AOk

    Tyumen Oblast

    Yamal-Nenets AOk

    Sakhalin Oblast

    Evreyskaya AOb (Jewish)

    Khabarovsk Kray

    Amur Oblast

    Primorsky Kray

    1 - Murmansk Oblast2 - Kareliyan Republic3 - Pskov Oblast 4 - Leningrad Oblast 5 - Novgorod Oblast6 - Smolensk Oblast 7 - Tver Oblast8 - Yaroslavl Oblast9 - Vologda Oblast10 - Bryansk Oblast11 - Kaluga Oblast 12 - Moscow Oblast13 - Vladimir Oblast14 - Ivanovo Oblast

    3 45

    6 7

    89

    10 1112

    13 1415

    16 1718

    19 2021

    2224

    2526

    Omsk Oblast

    Novosibirsk Oblast

    Tyva Republic

    Altaysky Kray

    Altay Republic

    Krasnoyarsky Kray

    Tomsk Oblast

    Arkhangelsk Oblast

    City of St. PetersburgKaliningradOblast

    Komi Republic

    City of Moscow

    Permsky Kray

    Sverdlovsk Oblast

    27 28

    Kirov Oblast

    29 30

    31

    32

    33

    34 3536 37

    38

    3940 41

    4243

    4445 46

    47

    48 4950

    51

    5215 - Kostroma Oblast16 - Kursk Oblast 17 - Orel Oblast18 - Tula Oblast 19 - Ryazan Oblast20 - Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast 21 - Belgorod Oblast22 - Voronezh Oblast23 - Lipetsk Oblast24 - Tambov Oblast 25 - Penza Oblast26 - Mordoviya Republic 27 - Chuvashiya Republic 28 - Mariy El Republic

    29 - Ulyanovsk Oblast 30 - Tatarstan Republic 31 - Udmurtiya Republic 32 - Krasnodarsky Kray 33 - Adygeya Republic 34 - Rostov Oblast

    35 - Volgograd Oblast 36 - Saratov Oblast 37 - Samara Oblast 38 - Orenburg Oblast 39 - Bashkortostan Republic 40 - Chelyabinsk Oblast

    41 - Kurgan Oblast 42 - Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic43 - Kabardino-Balkarskaya Republic44 - North Ossetiya Republic45 - Ingushetiya Republic 46 - Chechen Republic

    47 - Dagestan Republic 48 - Stavropolsky Kray49 - Kalmykiya Republic50 - Astrakhan Oblast51 - Kemerovo Oblast52 - Khakasiya Republic

    23

    Urals

    Siberia

    Far East

    Northwest

    Central

    SouthVolga

    FIGURE 8.3. The 83 “subjects of federation” (internal units) in Russia in 2010. AOb, autonomous oblast; AOk, autonomous okrug.

  • © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

    CPRF

    LDPR

    OHR/UR

    Yabloko

    Agrarian

    Other

    CPRF

    UR

    URF

    LDPR

    Yabloko

    Other

    UR

    CPRF

    LDPR

    JR

    1995

    1999

    2007

    FIGURE 8.4. Composition of the Duma of the Russian Federation after parliamentary elections in 1995, 1999, and 2007. CPRF, Communist Party of the Russian Federation; LDPR, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (nationalist leanings); OHR/UR, Our House Russia/United Russia (Our House Russia was a pro- Yeltsin party, which was later merged with others to create United Russia, the present-day pro-Putin party); Yabloko, a democratic, pro- Western party popular with the intelligentsia; URF, Union of Right Forces; JR, Just Russia (another pro- Kremlin party that was formed in 2006 to present a more socialist- leaning alternative to United Russia).

  • TABLE 8.3. Internal Units of Russian Federation During the Times of Yeltsin and Putin

    Unit Economic region Federal presidential district (2000)

    Belgorod Oblast Chernozemny CentralBryansk Oblast Central CentralVladimir Oblast Central CentralVoronezh Oblast Chernozemny CentralIvanovo Oblast Central CentralKaluga Oblast Central CentralKostroma Oblast Central Central

    Kursk Oblast Chernozemny Central

    Lipetsk Oblast Chernozemny Central

    Moscow Oblast Central Central

    Orel Oblast Central Central

    Ryazan Oblast Central Central

    Smolensk Oblast Central Central

    Tambov Oblast Chernozemny Central

    Tver Oblast Central Central

    Tula Oblast Central Central

    Yaroslavl Oblast Central Central

    City of Moscow Central Central

    Kareliyan Republic North NorthwestKomi Republic North NorthwestArkhangelsk Oblast North NorthwestNenetsky Autonomous Okrug North NorthwestVologda Oblast North NorthwestKaliningrad Oblast Northwest NorthwestLeningrad Oblast Northwest Northwest

    Murmansk Oblast North Northwest

    Novgorod Oblast Northwest Northwest

    Pskov Oblast Northwest Northwest

    City of St. Petersburg Northwest Northwest

    Adygeya Republic Caucasus SouthDagestan Republic Caucasus SouthIngushetiya Republic Caucasus SouthKabardino- Balkariya Republic Caucasus SouthKalmykiya Republic Povolzhye SouthKarachaevo- Cherkessiya Republic Caucasus SouthNorth Ossetiya Republic Caucasus South

    Chechen Republic Caucasus South

    Krasnodarsky Kray Caucasus South

    Stavropolsky Kray Caucasus South

    Astrakhan Oblast Povolzhye South

    Volgograd Oblast Povolzhye South

    Rostov Oblast Caucasus South(cont.)

    © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.

  • TABLE 8.3. (cont.)

    Unit Economic region Federal presidential district (2000)

    Bashkortostan Republic Urals VolgaMariy El Republic Volga- Vyatka VolgaMordoviya Republic Volga- Vyatka VolgaTatarstan Republic Povolzhye VolgaUdmurtiya Republic Urals VolgaChuvashiya Republic Volga- Vyatka VolgaPermsky Kray Urals VolgaKirov Oblast Volga- Vyatka VolgaNizhniy Novgorod Oblast Volga- Vyatka VolgaOrenburg Oblast Urals Volga

    Penza Oblast Povolzhye Volga

    Samara Oblast Povolzhye Volga

    Saratov Oblast Povolzhye Volga

    Ulyanovsk Oblast Povolzhye Volga

    Kurgan Oblast Urals UralsSverdlovsk Oblast Urals UralsTyumen Oblast West Siberia UralsKhanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug West Siberia UralsYamal- Nenets Autonomous Okrug West Siberia UralsChelyabinsk Oblast Urals Urals

    Altay Republic West Siberia SiberiaBuryatiya Republic Central Siberia SiberiaTyva Republic Central Siberia SiberiaKhakasiya Republic Central Siberia SiberiaAltaysky Kray West Siberia SiberiaKrasnoyarsky Kray Central Siberia SiberiaIrkutsk Oblast Central Siberia Siberia

    Kemerovo Oblast West Siberia Siberia

    Novosibirsk Oblast West Siberia Siberia

    Omsk Oblast West Siberia Siberia

    Tomsk Oblast West Siberia Siberia

    Zabaykalsky Kray Central Siberia Siberia

    Sakha (Yakutiya) Republic Far East Far EastPrimorsky Kray Far East Far EastKhabarovsk Kray Far East Far EastAmur Oblast Far East Far EastKamchatsky Kray Far East Far EastMagadan Oblast Far East Far EastSakhalin Oblast Far East Far East

    Evreyskaya Autonomous Oblast Far East Far EastChukotsky Autonomous Okrug Far East Far East

    © 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.