Taxonomy (Classification) and Phylogeny (Cladistics) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus

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  • Taxonomy (Classification) and Phylogeny (Cladistics)

  • • Classification is the grouping of objects based on physical similarities. In biology when doing this with organisms, it is called taxonomy.

    • It is predominately based on morphology. • Linnaeus and Whittaker gave us this

    system • Classifies diverse organisms into “like

    groups” based on traits. As the traits become more specific, fewer and fewer organisms are together.

  • 8 Levels of taxonomy….self check!

    Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  • Let’s look at the 8 Levels of taxonomy one more time!

    Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  • The Three Domains

    • Domain Archaea – Ancient prokaryotes

    • Domain Bacteria – Modern prokaryotes

    • Domain Eukarya- all eukaryotic cells – plantae, animalia, fungi, protista

  • Before we move on…protista???

  • The domain eukarya is very diverse …WHY???

  • • Taxonomists give a unique scientific name to each species they know about whether it’s alive today or extinct. (not to be confused with taxidermist)

    • The scientific name comes from one of two “dead” languages – Latin or ancient Greek.

  • • Why use a dead language?

  • Devil Cat

  • Ghost Cat

  • Mountain Lion

  • Screaming Cat

  • Puma

  • Florida Panther

  • Cougar

  • • There are at least 50 common names for the animal shown on the previous 7 slides.

    • Common names vary according to region.

    • Soooo……that’s why we use a scientific name, based on Latin!

  • Binomial Nomenclature • a two part naming system for writing scientific

    names. • The genus name is written first (always Capitalized) • The species name is written second (never

    capitalized). • Both words are

    – italicized if typed or underlined if hand written. FELIS CONCOLOR

    – Felis concolor or F. concolor – Apply: Which is the genus? The species?


  • • Cladistics /Phylogeny- is a relatively new system of classification that uses shared derived traits to establish evolutionary relationships.

    • A derived trait is a feature that evolved only within the group under consideration.

    • A phylogenetic tree based on a cladistic analysis is called a cladogram.

    • Out-group is the least related group, will be found on the far left of our diagrams!

  • • Synapomorphies = derived characteristics • Clade = A group of organisms and their

    common ancestor.

  • Think – Pair - Share

    • What is a shared derived trait that humans have?

    • Talk with the person next to you, come up with a couple of ideas.

    • Be ready to share!

  • Who is the most derived? Who is the out-group? What is a shared derived trait for pigeons? What is a shared derived trait for mammals? Where would you put monkeys?

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