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Taylor Forge - Modern Flange Design Bulletin 502

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Foreword:American Spiral Pipe Works was organized at the first of thecenturyto producespiral riveted pipe. This uniqueproduct waswidely used inwater supplysystemsfor cityaquaducts, surfacemining, and penstocks in this country and overseas. Aseriousproblemdeveloped with this pipewhen flanged joints were re-quired. At that timethe flangesweremadeof cast ironandwereoftenbrokenduringshipment andfabrication. J. Hall Taylor andhisstaffsolvedthisproblembydevelopingprocessesandequip-ment to manufactureasuperior, virtuallyunbreakableproduct-theforged flange. Thenunder a newname, Taylor Forge andPipeWorks, the company pressed on to become aleader in flangemanufacturing.They did not stop with that, but topped their achievement bydeveloping analytical flange design formulas for industry andCodeuse. Professor E. O. Waters of Yale Universityspearheadedthiswork and joined Mr. Taylor to co-author the technical papers whichled into the Taylor Forge publication Modern Flange Design.Industry immediatelyaccepted this convenient systemof flangedesignandusedit worldwide.This up-datedversion of Modern Flange Design carries on thetraditionwith askillful blendof data, graphics, andtext. Wesin-cerelyhopethatthisissuewill provetobethemost useful of all.1Table of ContentsForeword 1Introduction 4Side-step Designing 5-6Part ADesigns 7-12INTEGRAL. LOOSE OPTIONAL 8WELDING NECK FLANGE DESIGN , , 8SLIP-ON FLANGES 8RING FLANGES 10BLIND FLANGES 10REVERSE FLANGES 10SLOTTED FLANGES '.' 11UNUSUAL SHAPES 11EXAMPLE 1 WELDING NECK FLANGE DESIGN 12Full Face Design 13EXAMPLE 2 SLIP ON FLANGE DESIGN-FLAT FACED 14Face and Gasket 15-16,FACTORSm;y.b 17Load and Moment 18HARD AND SOFT GASKETS 20Bolts 21AREA 21SPACiNG 21Stress 23FLANGES 24BOLTS 25Technical Data ' 27-47TABLE OF CONTENTS ' 27TABLES AND GRAPHS 28-34BLANK FORMS 35-38Symbols and Definitions 40-41Bibliography 42Appendix 1- F. V, f, FL. VL Program Listing 43-46Appendix 11- Bolt Torque Chart 47Regional Offices 483IntroductionBulletin502 wasfirst publishedin1938~ y TaylorForge and Pipe Works as Modern Flange. Design.It has since become a standardreference.manualforthedesignof bolted flanges-nowcalledPartAFlanges bytheCode.0Thesearedefined ashavinggasketswhollywithinthecircleenclosedbythebolt holesandnopoint of contact beyondthiscircle.' Part Aruleslimit theanalysistocon-siderationof theflange moment that resultsfrom:bolt loadgasket loadfacepressure loadhydrostatic end loadThe analytical aspect of thisbulletin coveringPartAFlanges is based on paper number-FSP-59-4"Formulas for Stressesin Bolted FlangedConnec-tlons"," This paper considered the effect of ta-peredhubsandbuilt onanearlierworkbyE. O.WatersandJ. Hall Taylor "TheStrength of PipeFlanqes".?Thesetwo papersstill formthetech-nical base of the Code rules for flange design.Later, theauthorspublishedthederivationof theflangeformulasinabooklettitled, "Developmentof General Formulas for BoltedFlangesY'This seventh edition covers code revisionsthroughthewinter'78addenda, includesreviseddesignformulasfor reverseflanges, hasarefer-ence-only paragraph with designsheets for fullfacedesigns, addsa bibliography and a computerprogram listing forF, V, f, FL, VL, shape factors forhubbedflanges.ThePVRC Subcommittee onBoltedFlangedCon-nections and the ASMESubgroupon Openingscooperatiyelydevelopeddesignmethodsfor flatfaceflanges inmetal-to-metal contact. Rulesforanalyzing identical pairsof suchflanges were firstpublishedinMandatoryAppendix II of the 1971Editionof theCode. Theserulesgivea method ofanalysis that satisfies all conditions of equilibrium,providesforcompatibilityof rotationand transla-tion between elements (hub and flange), andaccountsfor the radial effect of pressureactingon the pipe, huband flange. The flanges designedbytheseruleswereidentifiedas "Part B"todis-tinguishthemfrom"Part A" flanges.Thetheoryusedasthebasisfor therules intheCode for identical Part Bflange pairs was ex-tendedonaconsistent basis toalsocover non-identical flanges. Because such an analysis islaborious, a simpler method suitable for analyzingbothidentical andnonidentical pairs wasdevel-oped and publishedasASMECode Case1828:"A Simplified Method for Analyzing Flat FaceFlangeswith Metal-To-Metal Contact OutsidetheBolt Circle." TheCasewasapprovedbyCouncilJanuary 9, 1978, after therulesforPart B flangeshadbeen transferredfromMandatory AppendixIItoNonmandatoryAppendixY intheSummer '77CodeAddenda.The simpler rules of Code Case 1828 resulted fromdesigning for tangential contact between theflanges at their outside diameter. Alsomany of theassumptionsandcharts that apply equally toPartA orPart B flanges wereused.It is beyond thescopeof this Bulletinto coverthe design of flat face flanges inmetal-to-metalcontact, however, the work leading up to theCaseisfullydocumentedintheopen technical litera-ture. Forfurtherinformationrefer tobibliographyitems6through12.()PART AFLANGES: GASKET COMPLETELY INWARDFROM BOLT HOLES - NO OTHER CONTACT.CDTheuseof "Code" inthis manual willspecificallymeanASMECodeSectionVIII, Division1.4{ ~ .'~Side'step DesigningAnyflange design work coststime andeffort, andleads onetoask, "Isthereaway I cansidestepdesigning?"Theanswerfor Part AFlangesis yes-twoways.Onewayistoconsiderthat theCoderecognizesthe proper use of existing flange dimensionalstandards. Thesearefullypreparedandreadytobespecifiedwithinthelimitsof their scopeandrating. TheCodeincorporatesANSI 816.5"SteelPipe Flanges ...",13 API 605"LargeDiameterCarbon Steel Flanges",14andANSI 816.1 "CastIronFlanges ... 15."Not included, but designed perCoderules are lndustry Standards Classes 75,175,and350,5 andMSS-SP44"PipeLine Flanges."15Notethat the816.5ratingsaboveambientdonotapply tothelarge diameterMSS-SP44 flangesastheyareintended for use withthin-wall high-yieldstrengthlinepipe. TheseshouldbecheckedforCodeapplications; sizesover 36" inClasses300and greater were designed usinghigher thanCodeallowedstresslevels.Flanges greater than24" sizethat arerequired tomatchvalvesoftenmustuse ANSI 816.1cast irondimensions. Thismay meanadjustmentsinmate-rial, bolting, andfacing. All such changesaffecttherating, andrequireCode Inspectorapproval.He will often ask forsupportingcalculations.Theotherwayto sidestepthetask of designingis to call on TAYLOR FORGEfor help. Whendesigncalculations must be done,and no standardisfound tosatisfyall requirements, we will bida custom designed flange. Thisworkis part of thequote and includes priceand delivery, but fulldimensional details are held pending an order.In the case where only adesign calculation isrequired, this can be furnished for a nominalcharge that depends on the complexity of theproblem and engineering/ computer time required.For any Part Adesign calculation, thefollowinginformationisessential: typeof flange shell or pipe dimensionsdesign pressure and temperature flange materialandthisinformationis veryhelpful:governing codemedia containedshell or pipematerialbolt and gasket materialfacing style-if specified corrosionallowance-ifrequiredIf thedesignmatesexistingequipment,give com-plete details of facing, drilling, andO.D.OPTIMUM INFORMATION INPUT IS ATRUE ECONOMV-IT SAVES GUESTIONS, GUESSES, AND GOOFS.Youmay sidestep CodeCase 1828 FlangeDesigncalculation by using our design/computer serv-ices.The calculation work for Code Case 1828 re-quiresmuchmoreeffortthanPart Abecausetheflanges behave differently. One flange is influ-enced strongly by the other since they are incontact outsidethe bolt circle; accordingly, cal-culated stresses are meaningful only when theinteraction is considered in the analysis. As aresult, whenwearerequestedtobidona customjobandperformcalculations, it isessential thatinformation on both flanges of the pair bepro-vided.We require a sketchof theassembly show-ing all dimensionswhich areknownor must beheld. Includeflangetypes, shell or pipe dimen-sionsfor each flange, material, type andsizeofgasket, design pressureand temperature. If theflangesaretobetested separately, for examplewith a blind cover, this information should beprovided to check adequacy of theflanges forthissituation.CODE CASE 1828 FLANGE PAIRS ARE DESIGNEDFOR 00TANGENTIAL CONTACT.6Part A DesignsThreetypesof flangesdesignedbythe rules of Part AaredefinedandillustratedbytheCode inParagraphUA-48and FigureUA-48.Seepage 7, Fig. 1-FlangeTypes. Thefirst typeis..Fig.1bFig.1c~...."h>Ocg,' / '9Radiol Fig., SR = f3mol AI' 5,,)..:it.Tong. Fig., ST =moY/f-ZSR= RADIALSTRESSAT BOLTCIRCLE6MG jSRAD- le.?t' (';TC-nd,) -.",K = A/B =I jJ.j hlh.T= /.F,Z = ;1.!7 V,yc,.1/ F,'}.59e=-=.1'.;.-U =h.g,/9o/'pod=h.g.' = /. pIh. = "Bg. !".u4VI7 STRESS FORMULA FACTORSA=3,)./'f-9OO/. tlt! "a =Ie+I /. 99.)-1/ ffc," f3=4/3Ie+J ;.3)...4-"Y =alT /. / s =,3/d .1..J.-7A=).. .047B=Urmo =Mo/B = d-t, / .2--wFace and GasketFigures to the right picture avariety of flange facing stylesusedinindustry. Specific recommendationsfor facing/gasketcombinationsare notwithinthescope ofthismanual, but pres-sure, temperature, thermal shock, cyclic operation, and thefluidhandledshould beconsidered. Thevariousflangestand-ardsgivevaluablesuggestionsinthisarea, alongwithdimen-sional data.Twogeneral categoriesareshown. The first sealsbybolt forcesqueezingthegasket and thisincludesraisedface, tongueandgroove, ring type joint, male and female, and lap joint. Thetonguefacecanbemadewithasmall nubbinfor extragasketgripwithout bolt load penalty. Thenubbinstylealso reducesbandisusedwithmetal cladgaskets.Gasket materialsusedinthisfirst categoryinclude thevarioussheet stocks of rubber, cork, and asbestos compositions,metallic-elastomer mixesasthespiral wound, andsolidmetalringsmadeas flat washersor ring-type-joint forms.RAISED FACETONGUE &GROOVERINGTVPE .JOINTTheother categoryiscalledself-energizingor pressureactu-ated. Thismeans that initial sealingis achievedbythegasket!facing geometrywithout significant bolt load, and the gasketseatingforceincreases withpressure. O-rings made of elastomermaterials are usedmost oftenin thisstyleseal. Calculations forflangesus

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