Teachers' and School Heads'
Salaries and Allowances
This document is published by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
(EACEA, Education and Youth Policy Analysis).
ISBN 978-92-9201-958-7 ISSN 2443-5376 doi:10.2797/499323 EC-AM-15-002-EN-N
Text completed in September 2015.
© Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2015.
Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
Education and Youth Policy Analysis
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Table of Figures 3
Main findings 5
Part I: Comparative Analysis 8
Part II: National Data Sheets 27
Part III: Definitions 113
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory salaries for full-time
TEACHERS in general education in public schools compared to per capita
GDP at current prices, in EUR, (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), 2014/15 10
Figure 2: Changes in TEACHERS' statutory salaries in general education in the public
sector between 2013/14 and 2014/15 (ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3) 14
Figure 3: Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory salaries for SCHOOL
HEADS in general education in public schools compared to per capita GDP
at current prices, in EUR, (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), 2014/15 16
Figure 4: Relationship between the relative increase in TEACHERS' statutory salaries
and the length of service needed to obtain the maximum salary in general
education in public schools (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), 2014/15 20
Figure 5: Decision-making levels (public authorities) responsible for setting
TEACHERS’ basic statutory salaries in general education in public schools,
(ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3), 2014/15 22
Figure 6: Salary allowances and complementary payments for TEACHERS in general
education in public schools, with the levels of authority responsible for
decision-making (ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3), 2014/15 24
EU European Union NL The Netherlands
BE Belgium AT Austria
BE fr Belgium – French Community PL Poland
BE de Belgium – German-speaking Community PT Portugal
BE nl Belgium – Flemish Community RO Romania
BG Bulgaria SI Slovenia
CZ Czech Republic SK Slovakia
DK Denmark FI Finland
DE Germany SE Sweden
EE Estonia UK The United Kingdom
IE Ireland UK-ENG England
EL Greece UK-WLS Wales
ES Spain UK-NIR Northern Ireland
FR France UK-SCT Scotland
IT Italy IS Iceland
CY Cyprus LI Liechtenstein
LV Latvia ME Montenegro
LT Lithuania MK* former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
LU Luxembourg NO Norway
HU Hungary RS Serbia
MT Malta TR Turkey
* ISO code 3166. Provisional code which does not prejudge in any way the definitive nomenclature for this country, which will be agreed following the
conclusion of negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations (http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes/iso_3166_code_lists.htm [accessed
: Data not available (–) Not applicable
• In the majority of countries/regions, teachers' minimum annual statutory salary for primary and
lower secondary education levels is lower than the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
For upper secondary education, this is also the case in more than half of the countries studied.
With regard to maximum gross statutory salaries, they are higher than per capita GDP at all
educational levels in most countries.
• In many European countries, in 2014/15 teachers' salaries increased in comparison to 2013/14,
with salary reforms and adjustments to the cost of living cited as the main reasons. This comes
on the back of salary decreases in many countries in the previous years due to the economic
• The minimum annual basic statutory salary for school heads in primary and lower secondary
education is higher than the per capita GDP in most of the countries. The same is true for upper
secondary education, where school heads are better remunerated than those at lower
education levels, and only a few countries register a minimum salary lower than GDP per
• The difference between the minimum and maximum salaries is usually positively correlated to
the number of years' service needed to reach the maximum salary. In some countries such as
Hungary (secondary level), Austria and Romania, the difference between the minimum and
maximum salaries is larger and many years of service are needed to reach the maximum
salary. In other countries such as Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and the United Kingdom (Scotland),
the difference between minimum and maximum salaries is smaller and the length of service
needed to reach the maximum salary is short.
• In almost all countries, the top level (central/regional) authority responsible for education sets
the teachers' basic statutory salaries in public schools. However, in nearly all Nordic countries,
local authorities alone or together with top level authorities have this responsibility.
• Almost a third of the countries/regions examined in this report offer salary allowances and
complementary payments for the following reasons: further formal qualifications, further
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) qualifications, positive performance appraisal or
good student results, additional responsibilities, geographical location, teaching pupils with
special educational needs or in challenging circumstances, participation in extra-curricular
activities and overtime. The two reasons most often cited across Europe are 'additional
responsibilities' and 'overtime', while 'further CPD qualifications' and 'positive performance
appraisal or good students results' are the least common.
• Salaries in private grant-aided schools generally follow the rules applied in the public sector. In
private independent schools, salaries are defined on an individual and contractual basis but
always follow national labour legislation/codes of practice.
Evolving expectations towards quality teaching imply that teachers are required to have an
increasingly broad range of competences and perform a wider range of tasks than before. Since
teaching is no longer seen as the transmission of knowledge only, teachers are expected to engage in
a variety of approaches that rely on the facilitation of learning and the co-creation of knowledge with
learners. To this end, teachers are expected to use ICT, work in teams, facilitate the integration of
children with special education needs (SEN) and contribute to school leadership and management.
Similarly, in addition to leading and organising teaching and learning, school heads have to spend a
considerable share of their time on managing staff and financial resources (1). This widening of the
skills set creates a challenge for all national education systems: how to attract the most talented
people into the teaching profession – people who satisfy all the new requirements and are able to
adapt to the changing environment. This is particularly difficult at a time when the education sector is
increasingly in competition with the business world to attract the best qualified young graduates.
Salaries and allowances are key elements in the attractiveness of the teaching profession (along with
such issues as working conditions, career prospects, professional development opportunities and
recognition). They play an important role in drawing people into the teaching profession and in
ensuring that serving teachers are satisfied and motivated to continue teaching.
Policies that affect the earnings and career prospects of those employed in the education sector
should therefore be an integral part of comprehensive strategies to raise the attractiveness of the
teaching profession, both for serving teachers and potential candidates. The Eurydice Network has
been collecting and publishing data on teachers' and school heads' salaries since 1995 (on a yearly
basis since 2010) to provide updated information on this important issue.
The present report is composed of three parts. Part I presents a comparative analysis based on the
data provided by each country. Part II summarises national sheets on teachers' and school heads'
remunerations from pre-primary education (ISCED 0) to upper secondary general education
(ISCED 3). Finally, Part III outlines the general methodology and definitions used in the data
In the comparative overview, the minimum and maximum statutory salaries in primary and general
secondary education are presented in nominal terms, and compared to per capita GDP in each
country. Data on salary progression and its relationship to professional experience is then analysed to
provide a picture of teachers' career prospects. The following section examines the levels of decision-
making responsible for setting tea