i just edited some pas of it..thanks to the one who really made it.
<ul><li> 1. drawings, cartoon, strip drawings, diagrams, formulas, charts, graphics, maps, globes. </li> <li> 2. A drawing may not be the real thing but better to have a concrete visual aid than nothing. To avoid confusion, it is good that our drawing correctly represents the real thing.One essential skill that the teacher should posses is drawing. </li> <li> 3. Drawings and sketches these are crude and simple lines, which are effective in showing what needs to be shown with sufficient clarity, to make the meaning vivid to the learners or students. a very effective way in explaining and showing ideas and concepts </li> <li> 4. Sketching </li> <li> 5. Another useful visual symbolthat can bring novelty to ourteaching is the cartoon. A firstrate cartoon tells its story tells astory metaphorically. Theperfect cartoon needs nocaption. The less the artistdepends on words, the moreeffective the symbolism. Thesymbolism conveys themessages. </li> <li> 6. Example:This cartoon iscritical of the so-calledcarpetbaggers,government agentsand others from theNorth who oftentook advantage ofthe South after theAmerican Civil Warended in 1865 </li> <li> 7. CartoonsCartoons- tell stories metaphorically through pictures, which need no caption. Symbolism conveys message, less words more symbolism the better. The cartoon presents a certain issue or concern which could be either for or against it. It is a pictorial representation or caricature of a person, idea, situation or issue that is designed to influence public opinion. They must be presented in a challenging manner </li> <li> 8. Suggestions for the use of cartoons Appropriateness to the experience level- the age and the experience or maturity of the target learners must be taken into consideration Simplicity- contains only the essential features. The cartoon must not contain so many details. Brevity of captions if ever but they may not be given any. Short and direct captions are used when necessary. Use of clear symbols. Use symbols that are conventional, like; the dove to mean peace; the owl to mean wisdom or education; the coffin to mean death; the turtle to mean slow or sluggishness and others Adequateness of size. The cartoon should be big enough to be seen and appreciated </li> <li> 9. Posteris a combination of bolddesigns and colorprimarily intended tocatch attention on asignificant fact, idea ormessage. Simply stated,a poster is a picture withappropriate caption. </li> <li> 10. Characteristics of a good poster It must be bold and simple but dramatizes features It must be appropriate to the grade level and to the subjects and purpose or purposes It must have only limited text, few words are generally used and key words are made to standout by means of type size or position. It must be attractive, pleasing to the eyes. Design and color must be given consideration. It must have the elements of dynamism and shock </li> <li> 11. StripDrawings </li> <li> 12. These are commonly calledcomics or comic strip. Dale(1969)asserts that a more accurateterm is strip drawings. Make useof strips that are educational andentertaining at the same time. </li> <li> 13. Example: </li> <li> 14. Where to use drawing as aninstruction?These can serve as a motivation andstarter of your lesson. It can also begiven as an activity for students toexpress insights gained at theconclusion of a lesson.Sources of drawingYou can obtain strip drawings fromnewspapers, magazines and books. </li> <li> 15. Diagrams </li> <li> 16. It is any line drawing that showsarrangement and relations as a partto the whole, relative values, originsand developments, chronologicalfluctuations, distribution, etc.(Dale,1969) </li> <li> 17. Example: </li> <li> 18. :Affinity Diagram used tocluster complex apparentlyunrelated data into natural andmeaningful groups. </li> <li> 19. Example of Affinity Diagram: </li> <li> 20. Work Rewards and Organizational Job Focusenvironment Recognition Philosophy Supportive Quick and Communicate Interesting work Management Appropriate Rewards organizational Goals Provide Adequate Give Recognition Give Good, clear Provide Challenging Equipment where Due Directions Experiences Provide Clean & Opportunity for Make work Double GoalsCheerful Environment advancement Meaningful Good Instruction Adequate salary Focus on our mission Give Responsibility Effective Provide Training Good Benefits Remove red tape Responsibility Affinity diagram of Keeping Employees Motivated </li> <li> 21. Tree diagram- used to chartout, in increasing details, thevarious tasks that must beaccomplished to complete aproject or achieve a specificobjective. </li> <li> 22. Revise supervisory Program Improve work environment Refurbish all admin. Teachers Offices To create a work Improve and ensure Improve system of opportunities forenvironment where rewards and advancement80-90% of employees Recognition are motivated Improve salary and benefits Improve interpersonal environment </li> <li> 23. Fishbone diagram- it is alsocalled the cause-and-effectdiagram. It is most commonlyused to analyze work-relatedproblems. </li> <li> 24. Example of Fishbone Diagram: </li> <li> 25. It is diagrammaticrepresentation of relationshipsamong individuals within anorganization. We can have a seven types ofchart: </li> <li> 26. 1. Time ChartIs a tabular time chart thatpresents data in ordinalsequence. </li> <li> 27. Example of Time Chart: </li> <li> 28. 2. Tree Or Stream Chart Depicts development, growth andchange by beginning with a singlecourse (the trunk) which spread outinto many branches; or by beginningwith the many tributaries which thenconverge into a single channel. </li> <li> 29. Example of Tree Or Stream Chart: </li> <li> 30. 3. Flow ChartIs a visual way of charting orshowing a process frombeginning to end. It is a meansof analyzing a process. </li> <li> 31. Example of Flow Chart:START </li> <li> 32. 4. Organizational chart Shows how one part of theorganization relates to other parts ofthe organization. </li> <li> 33. Example of Organizational Chart: </li> <li> 34. 5. Comparison or Contrast ChartUsed to show similarities anddifferences between two things. </li> <li> 35. Example of Contrast ChartAttributte 1 Name 1 Name 2Attribute 2Attribute 3 </li> <li> 36. 6. Pareto chart Is a type of bar chart, prioritizedin descending order of magnitudeor importance from left to right. Itshows at a glance which factorsare occurring most. </li> <li> 37. Example of Pareto chart </li> <li> 38. Gannt chartIs an activity time chart </li> <li> 39. Example of Gannt chart </li> <li> 40. Graphs </li> <li> 41. A graphic (such asa chart or diagram) depicting therelationship between two or morevariables used, for instance, invisualizing scientific data.Graphs are diagrams (pictures)that can be used todisplay/compare collected data.They communicate "visually </li> <li> 42. There are several types of graph:1. Circle or Pie Graph- recommended for showing partsof the whole </li> <li> 43. Example of Pie Graph food shelter water </li> <li> 44. 2. Bar Graph-use in comparing the magnitudeof similar items at different ties orseeing relative sizes of the partsof a whole. </li> <li> 45. Example of Bar GraphEnrolment of CTE from 2000-2010 </li> <li> 46. 3. Pictorial Graph- makes use of pictorialsymbol. </li> <li> 47. Example of Pictorial Graph : </li> <li> 48. 4. Line Graph - A line chart or line graph is atype of graph, which displaysinformation as a series of datapoints connected bystraight line segments </li> <li> 49. Example of Line Graph </li> <li>...</li></ul>