Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Rob Horner, Steve Newton, & Anne Todd University of Oregon Bob Algozzine & Kate Algozzine University of North Carolina

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  • Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

    Rob Horner, Steve Newton, & Anne ToddUniversity of Oregon

    Bob Algozzine & Kate AlgozzineUniversity of North Carolina at Charlotte

  • Background InformationGrant Enhancing Data-based Decision Making in SchoolsFunded by U. S. Department of Educations Institute of Education Sciences4-year project*

  • Project GoalsDevelop assessment instrument to measure decision making & problem solving of PBS TeamsDevelop problem-solving model (TIPS) to enhance data-based decision makingConduct initial workshops and do field testing in Oregon & North CarolinaGet feedback from field testers & reviseConduct 2 rigorous research studies Does instruction in use of TIPs actually enhance teams data-based decision making?

    *

  • Themes & AssumptionsDecision making is aided by access to data (data-based decision making- DBDM)PBS Team meetings are a major context for DBDMProviding instruction on how to embed DBDM in a problem-solving model (TIPS) will result in problem solving that is ThoroughLogicalEfficientEffectiveStructure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency and effectiveness

    *

  • Collect and UseData

    Develop Hypothesis

    Discuss andSelectSolutions

    Develop andImplementAction Plan

    Evaluate andReviseAction Plan

    Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

    Identify Problems

    *

  • Collect and UseData

    DevelopHypothesis

    Discuss andSelectSolutions

    Develop andImplementAction Plan

    Evaluate andReviseAction Plan

    Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

    Identify Problems

    *

  • Problem-Solving FoundationsStructure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency & effectiveness

  • Well begun is half done.Aristotle, quoting an old proverb

  • Important Structural ComponentsRegular meetings & regular attendanceThe right peopleThe right rolesFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystActive Team MembersAccomplishments Products of successful meetingMeeting Minutes (record of decisions & tasks concerning administrative/general issues)Problem-Solving Action Plan (record of decisions & tasks concerning problems identified by team)(Well discuss these in more detail later in this workshop)

    *

  • *

  • *

  • Before the MeetingRoom reservedNew business items solicited for agendaAgenda produced Team member roles determinedData reviewed by Data Analyst; Analyst ready to lead team through discussion of (a) possible new problems and (b) effects of in-process solutions on old problemsComputer reserved; access to SWIS online database assuredLCD projector reserved & set up to project data (or team has some other strategy for ensuring team members can review data at meeting)Team members have individual TIPS Notebooks to bring to meeting (Well review the (a) before-meeting, (b) during-meeting, and (c) after-meetings responsibilities of individual team members later in this workshop)

    *

  • At Close of and After MeetingMeeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan completed (more on this later in this workshop)Copy of Meeting Minutes & Problem-Solving Action Plan distributed to each member within 24 hrs.

    *

  • *

  • *

  • Activity #1On the TIPS Foundations ChecklistComplete Checklist Items 1 through 9, andChecklist Items 10a through 10e *

  • The TIPs ModelIdentify Problems

  • We are all continually faced with a series of great opportunities, brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems.John Gardner

  • Collect and UseData

    DevelopHypothesisDiscuss andSelectSolutions

    Develop andImplementAction Plan

    Evaluate andReviseAction Plan.

    Problem Solving FoundationsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelIdentify Problems

    *

  • Problems & Problem SolvingPBS Teams focus on social and academic problemsProblem Difference between expected/desired student behavior & current student behaviorProblem identification - Finding a difference & making decision about whether it is significant enough to require team action nowProblem solving Figuring out how to eliminate or reduce difference *

  • Lets Practice Finding Differences(Identifying Problems)Look for Difference Betweenschools average Major ODRs per school day per month, andnational average for other schools of comparable enrollment size*

  • SWIS summary 2008-2009 (Majors Only)3,410 schools; 1,737,432 students; 1,500,770 ODRs*

    Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school dayK-62,162450.34 = about 1 Major ODR every 3 school days, or about 34 every 100 days6-9602657.85 = a little less than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 85 every 100 days9-122158871.27 = more than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 127 every 100 daysK-(8-12)4314081.06 = about 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 106 every 100 days

  • Comparing a Specific Elementary School to the National Average*

    Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school dayK-62,162450.34 = about 1 Major ODR every 3 school days, or about 34 every 100 daysIf your elementary school has 150 students, it has ____ times more than 100 students? (150/100 = 1.5 times more)

    So you might expect Major ODRs per school day to be about 1.5 times greater than .34 (1.5 X .34 = 0.51 ODRs per school day, for a school with 150 students)

    Now compare schools Major ODRs per school day per month against national average of 0.51 ODRs per school day per month for elementary school with 150 students. Judge whether difference is significant enough to be a problem. Lets take a look

  • This Elementary School has 150 StudentsIs there a problem?*

    Chart1

    0.350.51

    0.50.51

    0.28

    0.98

    0.75

    0.85

    1.25

    1.15

    1.4

    1.3

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 0.51

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    NatAvgElem

    Elementary School 150 Students

    School MonthsODRs

    Sep0.35

    Oct0.50

    Nov0.28

    Dec0.98

    Jan0.75

    Feb0.85

    Mar1.25

    Apr1.15

    May1.40

    Jun1.30

    National Avg. = 0.51

    00.51

    10.51

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34

    0.51

    NatAvgElem

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 0.51

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    NatAvgMiddle

    Middle School 600 Students

    School MonthsODRs

    Sep6.25

    Oct8.00

    Nov7.00

    Dec12.00

    Jan10.00

    Feb13.00

    Mar15.00

    Apr11.00

    May9.00

    Jun8.00

    National Avg. = 5.10

    05.1

    15.1

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85

    5.1

    NatAvgMiddle

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 5.10

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    MidThisLast

    Middle School 700 Students

    School MonthsODRs This Year

    Sep3.00

    Oct6.00

    Nov0.00

    Dec0.00

    Jan0.00

    Feb0.00

    Mar0.00

    Apr0.00

    May0.00

    Jun0.00

    School MonthsODRs Last Year

    Sep6.00

    Oct7.50

    Nov6.90

    Dec12.00

    Jan10.00

    Feb11.00

    Mar15.00

    Apr12.00

    May9.00

    Jun9.00

    National Avg. = 5.95

    05.95

    15.95

    School MonthsODRs This Year All

    Sep3.00

    Oct6.00

    Nov4.00

    Dec4.00

    Jan5.00

    Feb3.00

    Mar3.00

    Apr4.00

    May2.50

    Jun2.00

    Months in graph8

    Avg. no. days mo.23

    Total days184

    Avg. ODRs per day2.24

    Total ODRs412.16

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85

    5.95

    MidThisLast

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 5.95

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    TrendElem

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    School, Previous Year Avg.

    School, This Year Avg.

    National Avg. = 5.95

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    TrendMiddle

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    School, Previous Year Avg.

    School, This Year Avg.

    National Avg. = 5.95

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    ProbBeh

    Elementary School 200 Students

    School MonthsODRs This Year

    Sep0.25

    Oct0.35

    Nov0.30

    Dec0.45

    Jan0.50

    Feb0.00

    Mar0.00

    Apr0.00

    May0.00

    Jun0.00

    National Avg. = 0.68

    00.68

    10.68

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34

    0.68

    ProbBeh

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 0.68

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    Location

    Middle School 495 Students

    School MonthsODRs This Year

    Sep3.00

    Oct6.00

    Nov3.50

    Dec0.00

    Jan0.00

    Feb0.00

    Mar0.00

    Apr0.00

    May0.00

    Jun0.00

    National Avg. = 4.21

    04.21

    14.21

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .85

    4.21

    Location

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 4.21

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    Time

    Master List, UnsortedMaster List, Sorted1

    Problem BehaviorTypeFrequencyProblem BehaviorTypeFrequency

    TardyMajor0TardyMajor0

    Forge/TheftMajor0Forge/TheftMajor0

    Dress CodeMajor0Dress CodeMajor0

    TobaccoMajor0TobaccoMajor0

    AlcoholMajor0AlcoholMajor0

    CombustiblesMajor0CombustiblesMajor0

    BombMajor0BombMajor0

    ArsonMajor0ArsonMajor0

    WeaponsMajor0WeaponsMajor0

    OtherMajor0OtherMajor0

    UnknownMajor0UnknownMajor0

    DrugsMajor0DrugsMajor0

    TechMajor0TechMajor0

    Iapp affectionMajor0Iapp affectionMajor0

    Out boundsMajor0Out boundsMajor0

    Gang displayMajor0Gang displayMajor0

    Inapp lanMajor1MinorMinor0

    Agg/FightMajor1M-Prpty MisuesMinor0

    LyingMajor1M-OtherMinor0

    Prop damMajor1M-DressMinor0

    VandalMajor1M-TechMinor0

    HarassMajor3M-TardyMinor0

    DisruptionMajor5M-UnknownMinor0

    SkipMajor5Inapp lanMajor1

    DisresptMajor15Agg/FightMajor1

    MinorMinor0LyingMajor1

    M-Prpty MisuesMinor0Prop damMajor1

    M-OtherMinor0VandalMajor1

    M-DressMinor0M-DisruptionMinor1

    M-TechMinor0M-Inapp lanMinor2

    M-TardyMinor0HarassMajor3

    M-UnknownMinor0M-ContactMinor3

    M-DisruptionMinor1M-DisresptMinor3

    M-Inapp lanMinor2DisruptionMajor5

    M-ContactMinor3SkipMajor5

    M-DisresptMinor3DisresptMajor15

    42

    Master List, Sorted2

    Problem BehaviorTypeFrequency

    TardyMajor0

    Forge/TheftMajor0

    Dress CodeMajor0

    TobaccoMajor0

    AlcoholMajor0

    CombustiblesMajor0

    BombMajor0

    ArsonMajor0

    WeaponsMajor0

    OtherMajor0

    UnknownMajor0

    DrugsMajor0

    TechMajor0

    Iapp affectionMajor0

    Out boundsMajor0

    Gang displayMajor0

    MinorMinor0

    M-Prpty MisuesMinor0

    M-OtherMinor0

    M-DressMinor0

    M-TechMinor0

    M-TardyMinor0

    M-UnknownMinor0

    Inapp lanMajor0

    LyingMajor1

    VandalMajor1

    M-DisruptionMinor1

    HarassMajor1

    Prop damMajor2

    M-Inapp lanMinor2

    M-ContactMinor3

    M-DisresptMinor3

    SkipMajor3

    DisresptMajor9

    Agg/FightMajor12

    DisruptionMajor14

    52

    Time

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Problem Behavior

    Student

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Problem Behavior

    Sheet3

    LocationFrequency

    Common0

    Bathrm0

    Library0

    Bus Zn0

    Park lot0

    Special evt0

    Other0

    Unknown0

    Office0

    Locker rm0

    Off-Campus0

    Stadium0

    Gym3

    Caf5

    Plygd11

    Hall14

    Bus38

    Class82

    153

    LocationFrequency

    Common0

    Bathrm0

    Bus Zn0

    Park lot0

    Special evt0

    Other0

    Unknown0

    Office0

    Locker rm0

    Off-Campus0

    Stadium0

    Caf3

    Library4

    Hall9

    Gym18

    Class30

    Bus38

    Plygd64

    166

    Sheet3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Location

    NatAvgHS

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Location

    TimeFrequency

    7:00 AM0

    7:15 AM0

    7:30 AM3

    7:45 AM1

    8:00 AM14

    8:15 AM1

    8:30 AM0

    8:45 AM1

    9:00 AM1

    9:15 AM0

    9:30 AM2

    9:45 AM1

    10:00 AM8

    10:15 AM2

    10:30 AM4

    10:45 AM2

    11:00 AM2

    11:15 AM5

    11:30 AM4

    11:45 AM6

    12:00 PM3

    12:15 PM0

    12:30 PM2

    12:45 PM15

    1:00 PM3

    1:15 PM5

    1:30 PM12

    1:45 PM7

    2:00 PM3

    2:15 PM4

    2:30 PM8

    2:45 PM0

    3:00 PM9

    3:15 PM4

    3:30 PM6

    3:45 PM0

    4:00 PM0

    4:15 PM0

    4:30 PM0

    4:45 PM0

    5:00 PM0

    138

    TimeFrequency

    7:00 AM0

    7:15 AM0

    7:30 AM3

    7:45 AM1

    8:00 AM8

    8:15 AM0

    8:30 AM0

    8:45 AM1

    9:00 AM1

    9:15 AM0

    9:30 AM2

    9:45 AM1

    10:00 AM15

    10:15 AM2

    10:30 AM4

    10:45 AM2

    11:00 AM2

    11:15 AM5

    11:30 AM4

    11:45 AM6

    12:00 PM20

    12:15 PM0

    12:30 PM2

    12:45 PM4

    1:00 PM3

    1:15 PM5

    1:30 PM12

    1:45 PM7

    2:00 PM3

    2:15 PM4

    2:30 PM3

    2:45 PM0

    3:00 PM9

    3:15 PM4

    3:30 PM22

    3:45 PM0

    4:00 PM0

    4:15 PM0

    4:30 PM0

    4:45 PM0

    5:00 PM0

    155

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Time

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Time

    StudentFrequencyStudentFrequency

    1121

    2131

    3151

    51101

    101111

    111131

    121171

    131201

    171211

    181231

    201241

    211341

    221351

    231371

    241381

    251391

    341401

    351421

    371471

    381481

    391491

    401501

    421521

    471541

    481561

    491571

    501601

    521621

    541721

    561731

    571751

    601781

    621791

    651851

    721861

    731881

    751891

    781931

    791941

    851971

    861991

    8811001

    891981

    931871

    941671

    961261

    971551

    991361

    1001411

    952252

    842952

    912842

    982912

    873512

    673653

    264184

    554128

    517228

    368969

    4110116

    609660107

    CountSumCountSum

    0

    0

    0

    0

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    0

    0

    0

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    0

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    0

    0

    0

    0

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    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Student No.

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Student

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

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    0

    0

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    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Student No.

    Number of Referrals

    Referrals by Student

    High School 1800 Students

    School MonthsODRs

    Sep5.00

    Oct7.50

    Nov11.00

    Dec16.50

    Jan11.50

    Feb11.00

    Mar15.50

    Apr9.00

    May10.50

    Jun7.00

    National Avg. = 18.90

    018.9

    118.9

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 18.90

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

  • Comparing a Specific Middle School to the National Average*

    Grade RangeNumber of SchoolsAvg. Enrollment per schoolNational Avg. for Major ODRs per 100 students, per school day6-9602657.85 = a little less than 1 Major ODR per school day, or about 85 every 100 daysIf your middle school has 600 students, it has ____ times more than 100 students?(600/100 = 6 times more)

    So you might expect Major ODRs per school day to be about 6 times greater than .92(6 X .85 = 5.1 ODRs per school day, for a school with 600 students)

    Now compare schools Major ODRs per school day per month against national average of 5.1 ODRs per school day per month for middle school with 600 students. Judge whether difference is significant enough to be a problem. Lets take a look

  • This Middle School has 600 StudentsIs there a problem?*

    Chart2

    6.255.1

    85.1

    7

    12

    10

    13

    15

    11

    9

    8

    School Avg.

    National Avg. = 5.10

    School Months

    Average Referrals Per Day

    NatAvgElem

    Elementary School 150 Students

    School MonthsODRs

    Sep0.35

    Oct0.50

    Nov0.28

    Dec0.98

    Jan0.75

    Feb0.85

    Mar1.25

    Apr1.15

    May1.40

    Jun1.30

    National Avg. = 0.51

    00.51

    10.51

    Note: Updated to 2008-2009 data

    Mean Major ODRs per 100 students per school day = .34

    0.51

    NatAvgElem