Terrell M.a. Thesis for Submission to UH

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Kakari-musubi in Old Okinawan

Text of Terrell M.a. Thesis for Submission to UH

THE FORMS, FUNCTIONS, AND MEANINGS OF SU AND DO FOCUS CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE OMORO SSHI OF OLD OKINAWAN

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EAST ASIAN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES (JAPANESE) DECEMBER 2009

By Lina J. Terrell

Thesis Committee: Leon A. Serafim, Chairperson Alexander Vovin Arthur Thornhill

Keywords: Omoro sshi, kakari musubi, emphatic constructions

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We certify that we have read this thesis and that, in our opinion, it is satisfactory in scope and quality as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in East Asian Languages and Literatures (Japanese).

THESIS COMMITTEE ______________________ Chairperson ______________________ ______________________ iii

TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................................IV LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................................VI LIST OF FIGURES.................................................................................................................................VII LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS................................................................................................VIII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................1 A. KAKARI-MUSUBI FOCUS CONSTRUCTIONS IN JAPANESE AND RYKYAN................................................1 Kakari particles in Modern Japanese......................................................................................2 Kakari-musubi in the Rykyan Dialects.................................................................................3 Kakari-musubi in Old Okinawan.............................................................................................4 B. IRREGULARITY IN THE KAKARI-MUSUBI OF THE OMORO SSHI................................................................5 Endings indistinguishable from imperative form.....................................................................5 Endings in -te...........................................................................................................................7 Endings in attributive form......................................................................................................8 Other irregularities in the kakari-musubi of the Omoro sshi...............................................10 CHAPTER 2: THE OMORO SSHI..........................................................................................................11 A. BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................11 Manuscript lineage of the Omoro sshi.................................................................................14 Print editions of the Omoro sshi..........................................................................................20 Overview of scholarship on the Omoro sshi........................................................................23 B. ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE OMORO SSHI .............................................................................................25 Japanese historical spelling (rekishi-teki kanazukai)............................................................25 Kana inventory and spelling conventions in the Omoro sshi...............................................28a. Spellings showing palatalization..................................................................................................29 b. Spellings affected by vowel raising.............................................................................................34 i. alternating with .................................................................................................34 ii. alternating with .................................................................................................35 c. Other sound changes affecting spelling.......................................................................................36 d. A note on dakuten and voicing in the Omoro sshi.....................................................................37

Chinese characters in the Omoro Sshi.................................................................................38 C. PHYSICAL FORMAT OF THE SONGS....................................................................................................38 Melody names, parallel lines and refrains.............................................................................39 Reconstructing a song............................................................................................................42 CHAPTER 3: KAKARI-MUSUBI IN THE OMORO SSHI.............................................................................53 A. METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................................................53 Description of the database....................................................................................................53 Eliminating non-KP lines to find the pool of KP su and do candidates.................................54 Reconstructing songs to further eliminate non-KP particles.................................................58 Sorting lines by sentence-final word......................................................................................68 B. FINDINGS....................................................................................................................................71 1. Endings of lines with su and its allomorphs.......................................................................72a. Lines with su, verbs in -e.............................................................................................................72 b. Lines with su, verb in -te.............................................................................................................75 c. Lines with su, verb in -a..............................................................................................................78 d. Lines with su, ending in a noun...................................................................................................79 e. Lines with su, verb ending in -u, and verb ending in u-na)......................................................79

2. Endings of lines with do and its allomorphs......................................................................81a. Lines with do, verb in -u..............................................................................................................81 b. Lines with do: verb in -e..............................................................................................................84

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c. Lines with do, verb in te..............................................................................................................85 d. Lines with do, verb in u-na......................................................................................................86 e. Lines with do, verb in i................................................................................................................88 f. Lines with do, verb in a................................................................................................................89

C. CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................90 BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................................................................93 MANUSCRIPTS OF THE OMORO SSHI, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER [NAME, DATE OF COPY, PARENT COPY, CURRENT LOCATION]:.........................................................................................................................93 PRINT EDITIONS OF THE OMORO SSHI, IN ORDER OF PUBLICATION............................................................93 GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................94

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LIST OF TABLESCHANGES IN

TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN KANA AND THEIR PRONUNCIATIONS FOLLOWING SOUND MIDDLE JAPANESE. .........................................................................................................................27 TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE SPELLINGS FOR EACH COLUMN AFFECTED BY MERGERS AND SPLITS. ........28 TABLE 3: KANA INVENTORY IN THE OS AND CORRESPONDING ROMANIZATION USED IN THIS PAPER. ...........29 TABLE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF SPELLINGS OF (POSSIBLE) KP SU AND DO......................................................32 TABLE 5: SUMMARY OF ALL POSSIBLE SPELLINGS OF KP SU AND DO IN THE OS.......................................54 TABLE 6: POOL OF POSSIBLE KAKARI PARTICLES (UNRECONSTRUCTED)....................................................58 TABLE 7 POOL OF KAKARI PARTICLES (RECONSTRUCTED), EXCLUDING SENTENCE-FINAL PARTICLES............67 TABLE 8 COUNT OF KP SU AND KP DO, SORTED BY LINE-FINAL WORD FORM, IN RECONSTRUCTED SONGS...72

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LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE 1. FIRST PAGE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONS OF THE SH MANUSCRIPT IN THE TEIHON OMORO SSHI (2002), SHOWING ALL OF SONGS 1-4 AND PART OF SONG 5. THE SONGS ARE NUMBERED FOR THE READERS CONVENIENCE; NUMBERS IN PARENTHESES INDICATE THE PAGE OF THE ORIGINAL.......................................18 FIGURE 2 THE FIRST PAGE OF SONGS IN THE OMORO SSHI EDITED BY HOKAMA AND SAIGO (1972), 1-3 AND MOST OF SONG 4. THE TOP ROW CONTAINS DEFINITIONS AND EDITORS ANNOTATIONS. THE MIDDLE AND BOTTOM ROWS ARE OMORO, WITH EACH SONG NUMBERED ABOVE ITS ITI LINE, AND THE FUSHI

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