Terrestrial Biomes. Latitude Position north or south of the equator. Position north or south of the equator. The sun strikes the Earth at different angles

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Terrestrial Biomes Slide 2 Latitude Position north or south of the equator. Position north or south of the equator. The sun strikes the Earth at different angles at different latitudes. The sun strikes the Earth at different angles at different latitudes. This determines the climate at each latitude. This determines the climate at each latitude. Climate includes wind, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Climate includes wind, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Latitude and climate are abiotic factors that affect what organism can survive in an area. Latitude and climate are abiotic factors that affect what organism can survive in an area. Slide 3 Tundra Circles the polar regions. Circles the polar regions. Long summer days and short winter days. Long summer days and short winter days. Temperatures are rarely above freezing. Temperatures are rarely above freezing. Only the top layer of soil thaws during the summer. Only the top layer of soil thaws during the summer. Under the top layer is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost. Under the top layer is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost. Slide 4 Tundra Although summer days are long, the growing season is short. Although summer days are long, the growing season is short. Process of decay is very slow due to cold temperatures, so nutrients are poor. Process of decay is very slow due to cold temperatures, so nutrients are poor. Combined with poor nutrient content, the topsoil is thin, so only shallow-rooted grasses and small plants, such as dwarf shrubs and cushion plants, can grow. Combined with poor nutrient content, the topsoil is thin, so only shallow-rooted grasses and small plants, such as dwarf shrubs and cushion plants, can grow. Slide 5 Tundra Mosquitoes and black flies are common insects. Mosquitoes and black flies are common insects. Lemmings, weasels, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, snowy owls, and hawks are the main small animals. Lemmings, weasels, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, snowy owls, and hawks are the main small animals. Musk oxen, caribou and reindeer migrate into the area during the summer months. Musk oxen, caribou and reindeer migrate into the area during the summer months. Slide 6 Taiga Also called boreal or northern coniferous forests. Also called boreal or northern coniferous forests. Located just south of the tundra. Located just south of the tundra. Stretches across much of Canada, Northern Europe, and Asia. Stretches across much of Canada, Northern Europe, and Asia. Forms an almost continuous band of coniferous trees worldwide. Forms an almost continuous band of coniferous trees worldwide. Slide 7 Taiga Warmer and wetter than tundra biomes. Warmer and wetter than tundra biomes. Climatic conditions are harsh with long, severe winters and short, mild summers. Climatic conditions are harsh with long, severe winters and short, mild summers. Permafrost is usually absent. Permafrost is usually absent. Top soil is acidic and poor in minerals as it develops slowly from decaying coniferous needles. Top soil is acidic and poor in minerals as it develops slowly from decaying coniferous needles. Slide 8 Taiga Common trees are larch, fir, hemlock, and spruce. Common trees are larch, fir, hemlock, and spruce. When the community is disrupted by fires or logging, birch, aspen, and other deciduous trees can colonize the area because the new soil conditions are with their tolerance range. When the community is disrupted by fires or logging, birch, aspen, and other deciduous trees can colonize the area because the new soil conditions are with their tolerance range. Slide 9 Taiga Animals common in the Taiga include weasels, red squirrels, voles, elk, red deer, moose, caribou, lynx, snowshoes hares, and a variety of migratory birds. Animals common in the Taiga include weasels, red squirrels, voles, elk, red deer, moose, caribou, lynx, snowshoes hares, and a variety of migratory birds. Slide 10 Desert Arid region with sparse to almost nonexisent plant life. Arid region with sparse to almost nonexisent plant life. Driest biome, usually receiving less than 2 cm of rain annually. Driest biome, usually receiving less than 2 cm of rain annually. Rainfall is the biggest limiting factor. Rainfall is the biggest limiting factor. Slide 11 Desert Areas receiving higher amounts of rainfall form shrub communities which may include drought resistant trees such as mesquite. Areas receiving higher amounts of rainfall form shrub communities which may include drought resistant trees such as mesquite. Areas receiving less rain have scattered plant life and large areas of bare land. Areas receiving less rain have scattered plant life and large areas of bare land. Slide 12 Desert Desert plants have various adaptations for living in arid regions. Desert plants have various adaptations for living in arid regions. Cacti have spines, photosynthetic stems, and waxy coating to help conserve water and discourage herbivores. Cacti have spines, photosynthetic stems, and waxy coating to help conserve water and discourage herbivores. Some desert plants have leaves that either curl up or fall off during extreme dry spells. Some desert plants have leaves that either curl up or fall off during extreme dry spells. Many desert plants germinate from seed and grow to maturity in short time periods after sporadic rainfall. Many desert plants germinate from seed and grow to maturity in short time periods after sporadic rainfall. Slide 13 Desert Many desert animals are small herbivores which hide during the heat of the day abd forage on plants at night. Many desert animals are small herbivores which hide during the heat of the day abd forage on plants at night. Other animals include kangaroo rats, coyotes, hawks, owls, roadrunners, snakes, lizards, and scorpions. Other animals include kangaroo rats, coyotes, hawks, owls, roadrunners, snakes, lizards, and scorpions. Slide 14 Grasslands Also called prairies, steppes, savannas, and pampas. Also called prairies, steppes, savannas, and pampas. In the United States, grasslands are located in the central and southwestern states. In the United States, grasslands are located in the central and southwestern states. Slide 15 Grassland Receives between 25 and 75 centimeters of precipitation annually, but usually experience a dry season, where insufficient water exists to support forests. Receives between 25 and 75 centimeters of precipitation annually, but usually experience a dry season, where insufficient water exists to support forests. Scattered trees are found throughout with larger groupings of trees near streams and other water sources. Scattered trees are found throughout with larger groupings of trees near streams and other water sources. Slide 16 Grasslands Large communities covered with rich soil. Large communities covered with rich soil. Soil has high humus content due to the many grasses which die off during the winter. Soil has high humus content due to the many grasses which die off during the winter. Grass roots survive through the winter, enlarging every year to form a continuous underground mat called sod Grass roots survive through the winter, enlarging every year to form a continuous underground mat called sod Slide 17 Grasslands Higher biological diversity than deserts. Higher biological diversity than deserts. Other plants include oats, rye, wheat, sunflowers, and a variety of wildflowers. Other plants include oats, rye, wheat, sunflowers, and a variety of wildflowers. Grazing animals include bison, deer, and elk. Grazing animals include bison, deer, and elk. Other animals include jack rabbits, prairie dogs, foxes, and ferrets. Other animals include jack rabbits, prairie dogs, foxes, and ferrets. Slide 18 Temperate Forests Also called deciduous forests. Also called deciduous forests. Receive 70 to 150 cm of rain annually. Receive 70 to 150 cm of rain annually. Dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that loose their foliage annually, such as maple, oak, birch, elm, and ash. Dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that loose their foliage annually, such as maple, oak, birch, elm, and ash. Slide 19 Temperate Forests Soil has a top layer that is rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay. Soil has a top layer that is rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay. Animals include squirrels, mice, rabbits, deer, bluejays, salamanders, and bears. Animals include squirrels, mice, rabbits, deer, bluejays, salamanders, and bears. Slide 20 Rain Forests Two types: Two types: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rain Forest Temperate Rain Forest Temperate Rain Forest Found along the Olympic Peninsula in the U.S. and in various parts of South America, New Zealand, and Australia. Found along the Olympic Peninsula in the U.S. and in various parts of South America, New Zealand, and Australia. Both types have extensive amounts of moisture supplied by rainfall or coastal clouds and fogs. Both types have extensive amounts of moisture supplied by rainfall or coastal clouds and fogs. Also have the highest diversity of organisms. Also have the highest diversity of organisms. Slide 21 Tropical Rain Forest Warm temperatures, wet weather, and luch plant growth. Warm temperatures, wet weather, and luch plant growth. Near the equator. Near the equator. Average temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. Average temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. Receive 200 to 600 cm of rain annually. Receive 200 to 600 cm of rain annually. Animals include sloths, parrots, monkeys, macaws, frogs, and chameleons Animals include sloths, parrots, monkeys, macaws, frogs, and chameleons Slide 22 Tropical Rain Forest Hypothesis for abundant biodiversity: Hypothesis for abundant biodiversity: Because they are located near the equator, tropical rain forests were not covered by ice during the last ice age and thus have had more time to evolve. Because they are located near the equator, tr