EXTRACTION OF SUGAR FROM DURIAN PEEL MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE
MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS MUHAMMAD ZULHILMI BIN
ROSMAN NUR ATIKAH BINTI A. RAHMAN
THIS THESIS IS TO FULFILL THE REGULATION OF YOUNG SCIENTIST MARA
JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE (MJSC)
MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING 22 JUNE 2007
MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING PROJECT ADVISORS
This project are reported by, MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD
. ( )
MUHAMMAD ZULHILMI BIN ROSMAN RAHMAN
NUR ATIKAH BINTI A.
. ( ) (
Received as participate in Scientist Disbud exhibition programme
of MARA Junior Science College
Projects Advisors : .. (Cik Nor Azaliani bt Johar ) Date :
I concede that this work is done by my-self, except for every
side of information and abridgement, are been given source of every
type of them.
Signature Writers Name Date
: : :
Signature Writers Name Date
: : :
Signature Writers Name Date : :
For those that has been scarified too much for us Not forget,
our Teachers Advisor, Miss Nor Azaliani Who was gave a lot of
supports and knowledgeable, Including the most love, fellow
Farahwaheda, Taufik, Arif, Khairul, Khairel and Ismail. .
I want to appreciate a million of grateful to our most lover
projects advisor, Miss Nor Azaliani Bt Johar in top of the given
punishment, support and advise along this research of period
holding. All type of conducy given are useful for the success of
Thousand of gratitude also to Ms.Hanim binti Awab, Senior
lecturer of chemistry department, in Science Faculty of Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia with all the staff and labs helper that has been
give us a lot of knowledge and support.
Last but not least, penghargaan ditujukan kepada sesiapa yang
telah terlibat secara langsung mahupun tidak langsung yang membantu
melaksanakan projek ini.
This research was done as to find another alternative to extract
sugar. As we know sugar caane is the main source to produce
sugar.Therefore some method was used to extract sugar from durian
peel.Before start our research we had studied the content of durian
peel and how the sugar was produce. After the research ,we had
recorded the result to determine the sugar content in the durian
Certification of the project advisor Certification Dedicated
Appreciation Abstract Contents List of symbols Chapter Chapter 1 2
: Introduction : Method 6 ii iii iv v vi
Chapter Chapter 17 Reference Enclosure
: Result and Discussion : Conclusion
List of Symbol
Symbol C mL M g V
Meaning Degree celcius Mililitre molarity Gram Volume
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Sugar is the important substance in our daily life. Most of the
sugar are used in the food industry such as baking cake, make
ice-cream, carbonated drinks, chocolate and others. Almost of the
sugar are obtained from sugar cane. As to variety the source of
sugar making, we had find an alternative that durian peel has a
high potential to produced sugar.
1.2 HYPOTHESIS We can produce sugar from durian peel because it
has cellulose that can be breakdown into sugar. Before this, our
group had sent email to profesors who are professional in this
field and their answers are positive and impressive. Based on their
statement, we can produce sugar from durian peel through a certain
process but we have to study the carbohydrates content in durian
peel first whether it is high or low. If the carbohydrates content
is high, so that the sugar content is also high. In the durian
peel, there are many substances such as ethanolbenzene solubility,
ethanol solubility, lignin, holocellulose, -cellulose and
Holocellulose, -cellulose and hemicellulose are come from one
family called cellulose. Sugar is a simple carbohydrate. Any
substance that contain simple carbohydrate or complex can be
breakdown into simplest sugar. As example, sucrose (dissacarides).
So the durian peel that contain cellulose can be breakdown through
chemical method or enzyme into lignocellulose. Then, lignocellulose
can passes through certain process to convert it into sugar and
ethanol (biofuel). From our research, there are many cellulose
content that can be breakdown and this shown that the durian peel
has high potential to become sugar.
1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW From our first research, we had done an
experiment to investigate the sugars content. This is to know the
quantity of sugar that can be produced by a durian peel. We had
done three experiment where the first experiment is dissolved with
hydrochloric acid, HCl while in the second and third experiment are
dissolved with sulphuric acid, H2SO4. The differences between this
two experiment are the use of dry durian peel in experiment one and
wet durian peel in experiment two and three. To get the dry weight,
some method can be used such as put the sample into the
refrigerator for three days, put the sample under sunlight for a
few days or heat the sample in the oven until its colour changed
As to fulfill MJSC Mersing graduations need
Each student of MJSC Mersing must followed and done the School
Enrichment Module (S.E.M) and also work out the investigation with
the scop that has been given by the college. Every student that
success and pass this program will be given a certificate. 1.4.2
Application of Biology and Chemistry
In order to complete this research we had used biology and
chemistry concepts. Our objective is to confirm the presence of
glucose in the durian peel. This is because we want to find other
alternative to produce sugar. We hope our research will get
positive result. 1.4.3 Usage of creative ideas to develop new
This research had taught us to be more confident in making a new
product. This experiences can also be used for future especially
when we are in university one day. Our country need their people to
be creative and compete each other.
CHAPTER 2METHOD / PROCEDURECHAPTER 2 : METHOD / PROCEDURE
Confimatory the presence of sugar in durian peel. The durian
peel was sliced into smaller size.
10g of durian peel was weighed.
3 mol dm-3 of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid were prepared
and labelled as A (sulphuric acid), B (hydrochloric acid).
The durian peel was dried in the oven until the colour was
changed into yellowish-gold.
The durian peel was added into beaker labeled A and B.
Leave the mixture for three hours.
The mixture was filtrate using filter paper.
Fehling solution A and B were mixed together in equal amount
(100ml for Fehling A, 100ml for Fehling B).
10ml of the mixing Fehling solution was added into each six
3 mol dm-3 of Potassium Hydroxide solution, KOH was prepared.
Beaker A and B were neutralized using Potassium Hydroxide solution,
The solution in beaker A and B were added into burette
respectively to titrate it while the mixing Fehling solution was
heated until the colour changed into brick-red precipitate..
The reading of burette was recorded.
Experiment of Confirmatory The Presence of Sugar In The Durian
Peel (Sulphuric acid). Aim : To confirm the presence of sugar in
durian peel. i. Inference : . Determine the rate of sugar that is
contain in the durian peel. ii. Materials : Below is the materials
that is used to do the analysis: 1. Apparatus i. Beaker ii. Knife
iii. 250mL of conical flask iv. Electronic balance
v. Oven vi. 10mL pipette vii. Bunsen burner viii. Retort stand
ix. Glass rod x. White tile xi. Burrete xii. Litmus paper 2.
Solution i. 3 mol dm -3 of sulphuric acid ii. Sample : Durian peel
iii. 3 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution iv. Fehling
Solution A and B
Method : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The white durian peel was
cut into the smaller pieces. A beakers were labelled as A
(sulphuric acid). 50ml of sulphuric acid,H2SO4 was prepared. 10g of
sample was put into each beaker and weighted. The reading was
recorded. Sample in beaker A was heated into the oven under the
temperature of 60C until the Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 was put into
beaker A. They were left for 3 hours. 150ml Fehling solution
(colourless) and 150ml Fehling solution (blue). Then, both of
Solution in beaker A that has been left for 3 hours was filtered
using filter paper. Then, 3 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide
solution,KOH was added into beaker A to
colour was changed into yellowish-gold.
the solution were mixed.
neutralize the sample using litmus paper. 10. 10mL of mixing
Fehling solution was added into the conical flask. 11. Then, 50mL
of sample solution in beaker A that has been filtered was added
into the burette. 12. The conical flask contained of Fehling
solution was heated using Bunsen burner.
13. The solution of sample was dropped until the blue colour of
mixing Fehling solution turned brick-red precipitate. 14. The
reading on the burette was recorded to calculate the total amount
of reducing sugar.
Experiment Of Confirmatory The Presence of Sugar In The Durian
Peel (Hydrochloric acid) . Aim : To confirm the presence of sugar
in durian peel. i. Inference : . Determine the rate of sugar that
is contain in the durian peel. ii. Materials : Below is the
materials that is used to do the analysis: 1. Apparatus i. Beaker
ii. Knife iii. 250mL of conical flask iv. Electronic balance v.
Oven vi. 10mL pipette vii. Bunsen burner viii. Retort stand ix.
Glass rod x. White tile xi. Burrete
xii. Litmus paper 2. Solution i. 3 mol dm -3 of hydrochloric
acid ii. Sample : Durian peel iii. 3 mol dm-3 of potassium
hydroxide solution iv. Fehling Solution A and B
Method : 1. The white durian peel was cut into the smaller
2. The beakers was labelled as B. 3. 50mL of sulphuric acid was
prepared. 4. 10g of sample was put into each beaker and weighted.
The reading was recorded. 5. Sample in beaker B was heated into the
oven under the temperature of 60C until the
colour was changed into yellowish-gold. 6. Hydrochloric acid
solution, HCL was put into beaker B. They were left for 3 hours. 7.
150ml Fehling solution (colourless) and 150ml Fehling solution
(blue). Then, both of the solution were mixed. 8. Solution in
beaker B that has been left for 3 hours was filtered using filter
paper. 9. Then, 10 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution, KOH
was added into beaker B to neutralize the sample using litmus
paper. 10. 10mL of mixing Fehling solution was added into each
conical flask. 11. Then, 50mL of sample solution in beaker B that
have been filtered was added into the burette. 12. The conical
flask contained of mixing Fehling solution was heated using Bunsen
burner. 13. The solution of sample was dropped until the blue
colour of mixing Fehling solution turned brick-red precipitate.
14. The reading on the burette was recorded to calculate the
total amount of reducing sugar.
Calculation Method. Calculation of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 Based
on 96% of sulphuric acid 1mol = 1 liter = 55.4 cm3 if 3 mol : = 55
x 3 1000 = 16.62 cm3 Calculation of hydrochloric acid, HCL Based on
the concentrated hydrochloric acid 1mol dm-3 = 1 liter = 36.46cm3
if 3mol : = 30.46 x 3 1000 = 10.938 cm3 Calculation of potassium
hydroxide, KOH Based on the 10 mol potassium hydroxide M1V1 = M2V2
(10)(V1) = (3)(250) V1 = 250 x 3 10 = 75 ml =7.2%
CHAPTER 3RESULTS / DISCUSSION
CHAPTER 3 : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data Of Titration First 7.00 28.90 Second 7.30 15.40 Third 12.70
18.90 Average 9.00 21.07
Beakar A Beakar B
1) Volume of sample food used = X ml 2) Value of sugar = Y mg /
100 ml 3) Factor of dilution : if the sample is dilute from 5 ml,
therefore the factor of dilution is 10. 4) Concentration of sugar =
Value of sugar Factor of dilution = Y /100 10
Discussion 1. Hydrochloric acid can extract durin peel more
faster than sulphuric acid. 2. Fehling solution A is a copper while
Fehling solution B is alkaline. 3. The concentration of of sugar in
the durian peel when its extract using hydrochloric acid is higher
than sulphuric acid.
CHAPTER 4CONCLUSION / SUGGESTIONS
CHAPTER 4 : CONCLUSION / SUGGESTIONS
After our group had done the research, we conclude that durian
peel is contained of glucose and can be produced into sugar. We
found that the sugars content in the durian peel is high
and it can be commercialize. It can be prove by the information
in the table at the enclosure. Our suggestion is to proceed this
research to MARDI to analyse
1. http://www.sciencedirect.com 2. http://www.eng.umd.edu 3.
Kimia Organik Konsep Dan Pendekatan, Mohd. Nordin Hj. Lajis 4. Siri
Teks Referens SPM Tingkatan 4 & 5 Kimia, Tan Pek Soo 5.
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry, 1988, 1993, 1997,
and 1998, New York : TAPPI
ENCLOSURE Reducing Sugars Table For 10mL of Fehling
Samp le soluti on neede d (mL) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
With sugarFactor s of inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per
Larutan terkandung dalam pembalikkan gula 1g of sucrose 5g of
sucrose 10 g of sucrose per 100mL per 100mL per 100mLFector s of
inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per 100mL Fector s of
inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per 100mL Fector s of
inversi on sugar Inversion sugar Pembalik kan gula(mg) per
25g of sucrose per 100mLFector s of inversi on sugar Inversion
sugar Pembalik kan gula(mg) per 100mL
50.5 50.6 50.7 50.8 50.8 50.9 51.0 51.0 51.1 51.0 51.2 51.2 51.4
51.4 51.5 51.5 51.6 51.6 51.7 51.7 51.8 51.8
336 316 298 282 267 254.5 242.9 231.8 222.2 213.3 204.8 197.4
190.4 183.7 177.6 171.7 166.3 161.2 156.6 152.2 147.9 143.9
49.9 50.0 50.1 50.1 50.2 50.2 50.2 50.3 50.3 50.3 50.4 50.4 50.4
50.5 50.5 50.5 50,6 50.6 50.6 50.6 50.7 50.7
333 312 295 278 264 251 239 228.2 218.7 209.8 201.6 193.8 186.7
180.2 174.1 168.3 163.1 158.1 153.3 148.9 144.7 140.7
47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6
47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7
317 297 280 264 250 238 226.7 216.4 207 198.3 190.4 183.1 176.4
170.3 164.5 159.0 153.9 149.1 144.5 140.3 136.3 132.5
46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.0
46.0 46.0 45.9 45.9 45.9 45.8 45.8 45.8 45.8
307 288 271 256 243 230.5 219.5 209.5 200.4 192.1 184.0 176.9
170.4 164.3 158.6 153.3 148.1 143.4 139.1 134.9 130.9 127.1
43.4 43.4 43.4 43.3 43.3 43.2 43.2 43.1 43.0 42.9 42.8 42.8 42.7
42.7 42.6 42.5 42.5 42.4 42.3 42.2 42.2 42.1
289 271 255 240 227 216 206 196 187 179 171 164 158 152 147 142
137 132 128 124 121 117
Mohamad Akmal Arif bin Mohamad Idris, Tingkatan 4. Maktab Rendah
Sains MARA Mersing, KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang, 86800 Mersing, Johor.
Ketua Jabatan Kimia, Fakulti Sains, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM. Fax : 07-5566162
Melalui, Tuan Pengetua, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing, En. Ejam
bin Samin. Fax : 07-2266399
21 NOVEMBER 2006
Tuan, Memohon Kebenaran Untuk Menjalankan Kajian dan Proses
Penghasilan Gula daripada Kulit Durian Merujuk perkara di atas,
saya selaku wakil kumpulan saya ingin memohon kebenaran dan
kerjasama dari pihak tuan untuk menjalankan kajian di fakulti tuan.
2. Tujuan kami membuat kajian adalah untuk mengkaji kandungan kimia
dalam kulit durian dan beberapa proses lain dalam penghasilan gula
daripada kulit durian untuk diaplikasikan dalam projek School
Enrichment Model (SEM) di maktab kami. 3. Butir-butir lawatan
adalah seperti berikut : Tarikh : 26 hingga 29 Disember 2006. Masa
: 10.30 pagi Senarai nama guru penasihat dan pelajar : Cik Nor
Azaliani bt Mohd Johar (780926-06-5060) Nur Atikah Binti A.Rahman
(900724-01-6600) Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris
(900814-01-5353) Mohd Fauzi Bin Salamon (900421-01-6291) Muhammad
Zulhilmi Bin Rosman (901028-01-5465) Muhammad Anas Bin Rosli
4. Sekian sahaja untuk makluman dan tindakan daripada pihak
tuan. Kami berharap agar pihak tuan dapat mempertimbangkan
permohonan kami ini. 5. Jika terdapat sebarang kesulitan di atas
tarikh yang kami berikan, kami berharap agar pihak tuan sendiri
dapat menetapkan tarikh tersebut. Kerjasama tuan amatlah dihargai.
Sekian, terima kasih.
Yang menjalankan tugas,
(MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS)
Ketua kumpulan Zenith Explorer, Projek School Enrichment Model,
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing.
ENCLOSURE 1 : LETTER FOR UTM SKUDAI.
Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris, Tingkatan 5 Uranus, Maktab
Rendah Sains MARA Mersing, KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang, 86800 Mersing,
Johor. Kepada: Encik Amiruddin bin Mohammad Pembantu Makmal Maktab
Rendah Sains MARA KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang 86800 Mersing, Johor. Tuan,
Memohon Kebenaran Untuk Menggunakan Makmal Merujuk perkara di atas,
saya selaku wakil kumpulan saya ingin memohon kebenaran dan
kerjasama dari pihak tuan untuk menggunakan makmal dalam projek
Tunas Saintis. .
21 Jun 2007
2. Kami melakukan projek yang bertajuk Penghasilan gula daripada
kulit durian mahu menjalankan proses terakhir dalam kajian kami
iaitu menghasilkan pepejal gula daripada kandungan gula yang
diperoleh daripada kulit durian tersebut. 3. Berikut dalah butiran
peminjaman makmal: Tarikh: 7 Julai 2007 Masa : 8.30 pagi Senarai
Pelajar: Nur Atikah Binti A.Rahman (900724-01-6600) Mohamad Akmal
Arif Bin Mohamad Idris Mohd Fauzi Bin Salamon Muhammad Zulhilmi Bin
Rosman Muhammad Anas Bin Rosli 4.
(900814-01-5353) (900421-01-6291) (901028-01-5465)
Kerjasama dan bantuan daripada pihak tuan amatlah
Sekian, terima kasih. Yang menjalankan tugas, (Mohamad Akmal
Arif Bin Mohamad Idris) Ketua kumpulan Zenith Explorer Projek SEM,
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing. ENCLOSURE 2 : LETTER TO MJSC
LABORATORY. RAJAH 1 : Kulit durian dipotong menjadi kecil.
RAJAH 3.2 RAJAH 3 : Proses penghasilan asid.
RAJAH 5 : Sampel ditimbang menggunakan penimbang elektronik.
RAJAH 6 : Sampel dikeringkan menggunakan ketuhar.
Send instant messages to your online friends