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EXTRACTION OF SUGAR FROM DURIAN PEEL MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS MUHAMMAD ZULHILMI BIN ROSMAN NUR ATIKAH BINTI A. RAHMAN THIS THESIS IS TO FULFILL THE REGULATION OF YOUNG SCIENTIST MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE (MJSC) BIOCHEMISTRY CATEGORY

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EXTRACTION OF SUGAR FROM DURIAN PEEL MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING

MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS MUHAMMAD ZULHILMI BIN ROSMAN NUR ATIKAH BINTI A. RAHMAN

THIS THESIS IS TO FULFILL THE REGULATION OF YOUNG SCIENTIST MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE (MJSC)

BIOCHEMISTRY CATEGORY

MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING 22 JUNE 2007

MARA JUNIOR SCIENCE COLLEGE MERSING PROJECT ADVISORS CERTIFICATION

This project are reported by, MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS

. ( )

MUHAMMAD ZULHILMI BIN ROSMAN RAHMAN

NUR ATIKAH BINTI A.

. ( ) (

. )

Received as participate in Scientist Disbud exhibition programme of MARA Junior Science College

Projects Advisors : .. (Cik Nor Azaliani bt Johar ) Date :

I concede that this work is done by my-self, except for every side of information and abridgement, are been given source of every type of them.

Signature Writers Name Date

: : :

Signature Writers Name Date

: : :

Signature Writers Name Date : :

:

Dedication

For those that has been scarified too much for us Not forget, our Teachers Advisor, Miss Nor Azaliani Who was gave a lot of supports and knowledgeable, Including the most love, fellow friends,

Farahwaheda, Taufik, Arif, Khairul, Khairel and Ismail. .

APPRECIATION

I want to appreciate a million of grateful to our most lover projects advisor, Miss Nor Azaliani Bt Johar in top of the given punishment, support and advise along this research of period holding. All type of conducy given are useful for the success of this project.

Thousand of gratitude also to Ms.Hanim binti Awab, Senior lecturer of chemistry department, in Science Faculty of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia with all the staff and labs helper that has been give us a lot of knowledge and support.

Last but not least, penghargaan ditujukan kepada sesiapa yang telah terlibat secara langsung mahupun tidak langsung yang membantu melaksanakan projek ini.

ABSTRACT

This research was done as to find another alternative to extract sugar. As we know sugar caane is the main source to produce sugar.Therefore some method was used to extract sugar from durian peel.Before start our research we had studied the content of durian peel and how the sugar was produce. After the research ,we had recorded the result to determine the sugar content in the durian peel.

CONTENTS

Title

Page

Certification of the project advisor Certification Dedicated Appreciation Abstract Contents List of symbols Chapter Chapter 1 2 : Introduction : Method 6 ii iii iv v vi

i

vii 1

Chapter Chapter 17 Reference Enclosure

3 4

: Result and Discussion : Conclusion

15

19 20

List of Symbol

Symbol C mL M g V

Meaning Degree celcius Mililitre molarity Gram Volume

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Sugar is the important substance in our daily life. Most of the sugar are used in the food industry such as baking cake, make ice-cream, carbonated drinks, chocolate and others. Almost of the sugar are obtained from sugar cane. As to variety the source of sugar making, we had find an alternative that durian peel has a high potential to produced sugar.

1.2 HYPOTHESIS We can produce sugar from durian peel because it has cellulose that can be breakdown into sugar. Before this, our group had sent email to profesors who are professional in this field and their answers are positive and impressive. Based on their statement, we can produce sugar from durian peel through a certain process but we have to study the carbohydrates content in durian peel first whether it is high or low. If the carbohydrates content is high, so that the sugar content is also high. In the durian peel, there are many substances such as ethanolbenzene solubility, ethanol solubility, lignin, holocellulose, -cellulose and hemicellulose.

Holocellulose, -cellulose and hemicellulose are come from one family called cellulose. Sugar is a simple carbohydrate. Any substance that contain simple carbohydrate or complex can be breakdown into simplest sugar. As example, sucrose (dissacarides). So the durian peel that contain cellulose can be breakdown through chemical method or enzyme into lignocellulose. Then, lignocellulose can passes through certain process to convert it into sugar and ethanol (biofuel). From our research, there are many cellulose content that can be breakdown and this shown that the durian peel has high potential to become sugar.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW From our first research, we had done an experiment to investigate the sugars content. This is to know the quantity of sugar that can be produced by a durian peel. We had done three experiment where the first experiment is dissolved with hydrochloric acid, HCl while in the second and third experiment are dissolved with sulphuric acid, H2SO4. The differences between this two experiment are the use of dry durian peel in experiment one and wet durian peel in experiment two and three. To get the dry weight, some method can be used such as put the sample into the refrigerator for three days, put the sample under sunlight for a few days or heat the sample in the oven until its colour changed yellowishgolden.

1.4 OBJECTIVE

1.4.1

As to fulfill MJSC Mersing graduations need

Each student of MJSC Mersing must followed and done the School Enrichment Module (S.E.M) and also work out the investigation with the scop that has been given by the college. Every student that success and pass this program will be given a certificate. 1.4.2 Application of Biology and Chemistry

In order to complete this research we had used biology and chemistry concepts. Our objective is to confirm the presence of glucose in the durian peel. This is because we want to find other alternative to produce sugar. We hope our research will get positive result. 1.4.3 Usage of creative ideas to develop new things.

This research had taught us to be more confident in making a new product. This experiences can also be used for future especially when we are in university one day. Our country need their people to be creative and compete each other.

CHAPTER 2METHOD / PROCEDURECHAPTER 2 : METHOD / PROCEDURE

Confimatory the presence of sugar in durian peel. The durian peel was sliced into smaller size.

10g of durian peel was weighed.

3 mol dm-3 of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid were prepared and labelled as A (sulphuric acid), B (hydrochloric acid).

The durian peel was dried in the oven until the colour was changed into yellowish-gold.

The durian peel was added into beaker labeled A and B.

Leave the mixture for three hours.

The mixture was filtrate using filter paper.

Fehling solution A and B were mixed together in equal amount (100ml for Fehling A, 100ml for Fehling B).

10ml of the mixing Fehling solution was added into each six conical flask.

3 mol dm-3 of Potassium Hydroxide solution, KOH was prepared. Beaker A and B were neutralized using Potassium Hydroxide solution, KOH.

The solution in beaker A and B were added into burette respectively to titrate it while the mixing Fehling solution was heated until the colour changed into brick-red precipitate..

The reading of burette was recorded.

Experiment of Confirmatory The Presence of Sugar In The Durian Peel (Sulphuric acid). Aim : To confirm the presence of sugar in durian peel. i. Inference : . Determine the rate of sugar that is contain in the durian peel. ii. Materials : Below is the materials that is used to do the analysis: 1. Apparatus i. Beaker ii. Knife iii. 250mL of conical flask iv. Electronic balance

v. Oven vi. 10mL pipette vii. Bunsen burner viii. Retort stand ix. Glass rod x. White tile xi. Burrete xii. Litmus paper 2. Solution i. 3 mol dm -3 of sulphuric acid ii. Sample : Durian peel iii. 3 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution iv. Fehling Solution A and B

Method : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The white durian peel was cut into the smaller pieces. A beakers were labelled as A (sulphuric acid). 50ml of sulphuric acid,H2SO4 was prepared. 10g of sample was put into each beaker and weighted. The reading was recorded. Sample in beaker A was heated into the oven under the temperature of 60C until the Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 was put into beaker A. They were left for 3 hours. 150ml Fehling solution (colourless) and 150ml Fehling solution (blue). Then, both of Solution in beaker A that has been left for 3 hours was filtered using filter paper. Then, 3 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution,KOH was added into beaker A to

colour was changed into yellowish-gold.

the solution were mixed.

neutralize the sample using litmus paper. 10. 10mL of mixing Fehling solution was added into the conical flask. 11. Then, 50mL of sample solution in beaker A that has been filtered was added into the burette. 12. The conical flask contained of Fehling solution was heated using Bunsen burner.

13. The solution of sample was dropped until the blue colour of mixing Fehling solution turned brick-red precipitate. 14. The reading on the burette was recorded to calculate the total amount of reducing sugar.

Experiment Of Confirmatory The Presence of Sugar In The Durian Peel (Hydrochloric acid) . Aim : To confirm the presence of sugar in durian peel. i. Inference : . Determine the rate of sugar that is contain in the durian peel. ii. Materials : Below is the materials that is used to do the analysis: 1. Apparatus i. Beaker ii. Knife iii. 250mL of conical flask iv. Electronic balance v. Oven vi. 10mL pipette vii. Bunsen burner viii. Retort stand ix. Glass rod x. White tile xi. Burrete

xii. Litmus paper 2. Solution i. 3 mol dm -3 of hydrochloric acid ii. Sample : Durian peel iii. 3 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution iv. Fehling Solution A and B

Method : 1. The white durian peel was cut into the smaller pieces.

2. The beakers was labelled as B. 3. 50mL of sulphuric acid was prepared. 4. 10g of sample was put into each beaker and weighted. The reading was recorded. 5. Sample in beaker B was heated into the oven under the temperature of 60C until the

colour was changed into yellowish-gold. 6. Hydrochloric acid solution, HCL was put into beaker B. They were left for 3 hours. 7. 150ml Fehling solution (colourless) and 150ml Fehling solution (blue). Then, both of the solution were mixed. 8. Solution in beaker B that has been left for 3 hours was filtered using filter paper. 9. Then, 10 mol dm-3 of potassium hydroxide solution, KOH was added into beaker B to neutralize the sample using litmus paper. 10. 10mL of mixing Fehling solution was added into each conical flask. 11. Then, 50mL of sample solution in beaker B that have been filtered was added into the burette. 12. The conical flask contained of mixing Fehling solution was heated using Bunsen burner. 13. The solution of sample was dropped until the blue colour of mixing Fehling solution turned brick-red precipitate.

14. The reading on the burette was recorded to calculate the total amount of reducing sugar.

Calculation Method. Calculation of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 Based on 96% of sulphuric acid 1mol = 1 liter = 55.4 cm3 if 3 mol : = 55 x 3 1000 = 16.62 cm3 Calculation of hydrochloric acid, HCL Based on the concentrated hydrochloric acid 1mol dm-3 = 1 liter = 36.46cm3 if 3mol : = 30.46 x 3 1000 = 10.938 cm3 Calculation of potassium hydroxide, KOH Based on the 10 mol potassium hydroxide M1V1 = M2V2 (10)(V1) = (3)(250) V1 = 250 x 3 10 = 75 ml =7.2%

CHAPTER 3RESULTS / DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 3 : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Data Of Titration First 7.00 28.90 Second 7.30 15.40 Third 12.70 18.90 Average 9.00 21.07

Beakar A Beakar B

1) Volume of sample food used = X ml 2) Value of sugar = Y mg / 100 ml 3) Factor of dilution : if the sample is dilute from 5 ml, therefore the factor of dilution is 10. 4) Concentration of sugar = Value of sugar Factor of dilution = Y /100 10

Discussion 1. Hydrochloric acid can extract durin peel more faster than sulphuric acid. 2. Fehling solution A is a copper while Fehling solution B is alkaline. 3. The concentration of of sugar in the durian peel when its extract using hydrochloric acid is higher than sulphuric acid.

CHAPTER 4CONCLUSION / SUGGESTIONS

CHAPTER 4 : CONCLUSION / SUGGESTIONS

After our group had done the research, we conclude that durian peel is contained of glucose and can be produced into sugar. We found that the sugars content in the durian peel is high

and it can be commercialize. It can be prove by the information in the table at the enclosure. Our suggestion is to proceed this research to MARDI to analyse

REFERENCE

REFERENCE

1. http://www.sciencedirect.com 2. http://www.eng.umd.edu 3. Kimia Organik Konsep Dan Pendekatan, Mohd. Nordin Hj. Lajis 4. Siri Teks Referens SPM Tingkatan 4 & 5 Kimia, Tan Pek Soo 5. Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry, 1988, 1993, 1997, and 1998, New York : TAPPI

ENCLOSURE

ENCLOSURE Reducing Sugars Table For 10mL of Fehling solution.

Samp le soluti on neede d (mL) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

With sugarFactor s of inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per 100mL

Larutan terkandung dalam pembalikkan gula 1g of sucrose 5g of sucrose 10 g of sucrose per 100mL per 100mL per 100mLFector s of inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per 100mL Fector s of inversi on sugar Inversi on sugar (mg) per 100mL Fector s of inversi on sugar Inversion sugar Pembalik kan gula(mg) per 100mL

25g of sucrose per 100mLFector s of inversi on sugar Inversion sugar Pembalik kan gula(mg) per 100mL

50.5 50.6 50.7 50.8 50.8 50.9 51.0 51.0 51.1 51.0 51.2 51.2 51.4 51.4 51.5 51.5 51.6 51.6 51.7 51.7 51.8 51.8

336 316 298 282 267 254.5 242.9 231.8 222.2 213.3 204.8 197.4 190.4 183.7 177.6 171.7 166.3 161.2 156.6 152.2 147.9 143.9

49.9 50.0 50.1 50.1 50.2 50.2 50.2 50.3 50.3 50.3 50.4 50.4 50.4 50.5 50.5 50.5 50,6 50.6 50.6 50.6 50.7 50.7

333 312 295 278 264 251 239 228.2 218.7 209.8 201.6 193.8 186.7 180.2 174.1 168.3 163.1 158.1 153.3 148.9 144.7 140.7

47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.6 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7

317 297 280 264 250 238 226.7 216.4 207 198.3 190.4 183.1 176.4 170.3 164.5 159.0 153.9 149.1 144.5 140.3 136.3 132.5

46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 45.9 45.9 45.9 45.8 45.8 45.8 45.8

307 288 271 256 243 230.5 219.5 209.5 200.4 192.1 184.0 176.9 170.4 164.3 158.6 153.3 148.1 143.4 139.1 134.9 130.9 127.1

43.4 43.4 43.4 43.3 43.3 43.2 43.2 43.1 43.0 42.9 42.8 42.8 42.7 42.7 42.6 42.5 42.5 42.4 42.3 42.2 42.2 42.1

289 271 255 240 227 216 206 196 187 179 171 164 158 152 147 142 137 132 128 124 121 117

Mohamad Akmal Arif bin Mohamad Idris, Tingkatan 4. Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing, KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang, 86800 Mersing, Johor. Ketua Jabatan Kimia, Fakulti Sains, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ,

81310 Skudai, Johor, JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM. Fax : 07-5566162 Melalui, Tuan Pengetua, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing, En. Ejam bin Samin. Fax : 07-2266399

21 NOVEMBER 2006

Tuan, Memohon Kebenaran Untuk Menjalankan Kajian dan Proses Penghasilan Gula daripada Kulit Durian Merujuk perkara di atas, saya selaku wakil kumpulan saya ingin memohon kebenaran dan kerjasama dari pihak tuan untuk menjalankan kajian di fakulti tuan. 2. Tujuan kami membuat kajian adalah untuk mengkaji kandungan kimia dalam kulit durian dan beberapa proses lain dalam penghasilan gula daripada kulit durian untuk diaplikasikan dalam projek School Enrichment Model (SEM) di maktab kami. 3. Butir-butir lawatan adalah seperti berikut : Tarikh : 26 hingga 29 Disember 2006. Masa : 10.30 pagi Senarai nama guru penasihat dan pelajar : Cik Nor Azaliani bt Mohd Johar (780926-06-5060) Nur Atikah Binti A.Rahman (900724-01-6600) Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris (900814-01-5353) Mohd Fauzi Bin Salamon (900421-01-6291) Muhammad Zulhilmi Bin Rosman (901028-01-5465) Muhammad Anas Bin Rosli (900627-01-6481)

4. Sekian sahaja untuk makluman dan tindakan daripada pihak tuan. Kami berharap agar pihak tuan dapat mempertimbangkan permohonan kami ini. 5. Jika terdapat sebarang kesulitan di atas tarikh yang kami berikan, kami berharap agar pihak tuan sendiri dapat menetapkan tarikh tersebut. Kerjasama tuan amatlah dihargai. Sekian, terima kasih.

Yang menjalankan tugas,

(MOHAMAD AKMAL ARIF BIN MOHAMAD IDRIS)

Ketua kumpulan Zenith Explorer, Projek School Enrichment Model, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing.

ENCLOSURE 1 : LETTER FOR UTM SKUDAI.

Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris, Tingkatan 5 Uranus, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing, KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang, 86800 Mersing, Johor. Kepada: Encik Amiruddin bin Mohammad Pembantu Makmal Maktab Rendah Sains MARA KM 6, Jalan Jemaluang 86800 Mersing, Johor. Tuan, Memohon Kebenaran Untuk Menggunakan Makmal Merujuk perkara di atas, saya selaku wakil kumpulan saya ingin memohon kebenaran dan kerjasama dari pihak tuan untuk menggunakan makmal dalam projek Tunas Saintis. .

21 Jun 2007

2. Kami melakukan projek yang bertajuk Penghasilan gula daripada kulit durian mahu menjalankan proses terakhir dalam kajian kami iaitu menghasilkan pepejal gula daripada kandungan gula yang diperoleh daripada kulit durian tersebut. 3. Berikut dalah butiran peminjaman makmal: Tarikh: 7 Julai 2007 Masa : 8.30 pagi Senarai Pelajar: Nur Atikah Binti A.Rahman (900724-01-6600) Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris Mohd Fauzi Bin Salamon Muhammad Zulhilmi Bin Rosman Muhammad Anas Bin Rosli 4.

(900814-01-5353) (900421-01-6291) (901028-01-5465) (900627-01-6481)

Kerjasama dan bantuan daripada pihak tuan amatlah diharapkan.

Sekian, terima kasih. Yang menjalankan tugas, (Mohamad Akmal Arif Bin Mohamad Idris) Ketua kumpulan Zenith Explorer Projek SEM, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mersing. ENCLOSURE 2 : LETTER TO MJSC LABORATORY. RAJAH 1 : Kulit durian dipotong menjadi kecil.

RAJAH 3.1

RAJAH 3.2 RAJAH 3 : Proses penghasilan asid.

RAJAH 5 : Sampel ditimbang menggunakan penimbang elektronik. RAJAH 6 : Sampel dikeringkan menggunakan ketuhar.

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