The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests 1400-1800. Earlier Explorations. 1100’s Crusades-Islam & Spice Trade India (Moluccas-cloves) New player E urope 1271- Marco Polo -IT.-China Expansion becomes a business European Monarchs had authority & resources to explore. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests
The Age of EarlyEuropean Explorations& Conquests 1400-18001Earlier Explorations1100s Crusades-Islam & Spice Trade India (Moluccas-cloves)New player Europe1271-Marco Polo-IT.-ChinaExpansion becomes a business European Monarchs had authority & resources to explore
2Admiral Zheng He
1371-1435Asia/India/Africa-Floating cities!3Zheng Hes Voyages
4Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
5***Motives for European ExplorationCrusades by-pass intermediarie (middlemen) to get to AsiaRenaissance curiosity about other lands and peoplesReformation refugees & missionaries/spread the word of God Gold-New Resources & RevenueGod-ChristianizeGlory-Fame & fortune for their country
6New Weapons Technology
7New Maritime TechnologiesAstrolabe (lat.)(1532)
Rough Maps [Portulan]
8Prince Henry, the Navigator1419-School for Navigation,
9Museum of Navigationin Lisbon
10Portuguese Maritime Empire1. Exploring north/west coast of Africa2. 1487-Bartolommeo Dias (Cape of Storms)3. 1498- Vasco Da Gama reached port of Calcutta, India!
4. Cabral-Brazil-Asia/India Spice Is-Indonesia
11Christoforo Colombo [1451-1506]-Italian
12Columbus Four Voyages-1492
13Other Voyages of Exploration
14Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c-potuguese
Looking for El Dorado16Fernando Cortez/conquistador
The First Spanish Conquests:The AztecsMontezuma IIvs.17The Death of Montezuma II
Mexico Surrenders to Cortez19Francisco PizarroThe First Spanish Conquests: The IncasAtahualpavs.
20Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
21Why would the'Columbian Exchange'be considered thetsunami ofunintentional"bio-terrorism"??22The Columbian Exchange
Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough Trinkets Liquor GUNS23Cycle of Conquest & Colonization1. ExplorersConquistadoresMissionariesPermanentSettlers5. OfficialEuropeanColony!24Treasuresfrom the Americas!
25Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
26The Slave TradeExisted in Africa before the coming of the EuropeansPortuguese replaced European slaves with Africans (slave from Slav)Sugar cane & sugar plantationsFirst boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countriesBetween 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas27Slave Ship
Middle Passage28Coffin Position Below Deck
29African CaptivesThrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships!30European Empires in the Americas
31The Colonial Class SystemPeninsularesCreolesMestizosMulattosNative IndiansBlack Slaves32Spanish Empire in the New WorldEncomienda -natives used as forced laborCouncil of the IndiesViceroyNew Spain and PeruPapal agreement
33The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Spanish Mission341494-Treaty of Tordesillas Popes Line of DemarcationBetw. Spain & port.
35Father Bartolome de Las Casas
New Laws 154236New Colonial RivalsPortugal lacked numbers & wealth to dominate trade in Indian ocean1591-1st English expedition to the Indies drove out Portg. (India becomes British colony)1595-Dutch-Netherlands-Dutch East India Company Kicked out Portg.-Monopolized trade -Spice Is. East Asia-(cloves)37New Colonial Rivals
38***Negative Impact of European Exploration ------Native populations ravaged by disease.ex.Native pop. Enslaved- Native Americas .Slave Trade Caused a Diaspora of African people/Middle passage/Sugar mills etc.
39Impact-----Wars & power struggles betw. Europeans (for control of land in the new areas/control of & trade) ex; French Indian War between.natives used in the wars etc.
Impact of Exploration----Natives-Indigenous people lost culture/religion /traditions forced to adapt European ways..ex-Maya/Incas/Aztec and the conquers.
Positive ImpactInflux of gold, and silver, into Europe created wealth+++++
New products +/_introduced across continents -Columbian Exchange+/-both positive and negative
+Impact of Age of ExplorationBrought technology/created Industries-money systemCreated railroads/roads/canals/.schools/hospitalsEmergence of the modern worldU.S -Reduced local warfare betw. Tribes-tribes stopped fighting
EXTENDED RESPONSESEssayThe Age of European Exploration and conquest had both negative and positive consequences Explain the positive and negative effects of the age of ex/colonization 5. New Patterns of World Trade