The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests 1400-1800

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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests 1400-1800. Earlier Explorations. 1100’s Crusades-Islam & Spice Trade India (Moluccas-cloves) New player E urope 1271- Marco Polo -IT.-China Expansion becomes a business  European Monarchs had authority & resources to explore. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests 1400-1800

Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests

The Age of EarlyEuropean Explorations& Conquests 1400-18001Earlier Explorations1100s Crusades-Islam & Spice Trade India (Moluccas-cloves)New player Europe1271-Marco Polo-IT.-ChinaExpansion becomes a business European Monarchs had authority & resources to explore

2Admiral Zheng He

1371-1435Asia/India/Africa-Floating cities!3Zheng Hes Voyages

4Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

5***Motives for European ExplorationCrusades by-pass intermediarie (middlemen) to get to AsiaRenaissance curiosity about other lands and peoplesReformation refugees & missionaries/spread the word of God Gold-New Resources & RevenueGod-ChristianizeGlory-Fame & fortune for their country

6New Weapons Technology

7New Maritime TechnologiesAstrolabe (lat.)(1532)

Rough Maps [Portulan]

Sextant (angle-Horizon)

Mariners Compass

8Prince Henry, the Navigator1419-School for Navigation,

9Museum of Navigationin Lisbon

10Portuguese Maritime Empire1. Exploring north/west coast of Africa2. 1487-Bartolommeo Dias (Cape of Storms)3. 1498- Vasco Da Gama reached port of Calcutta, India!

4. Cabral-Brazil-Asia/India Spice Is-Indonesia

11Christoforo Colombo [1451-1506]-Italian

12Columbus Four Voyages-1492

13Other Voyages of Exploration

14Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c-potuguese

15Atlantic Explorations

Looking for El Dorado16Fernando Cortez/conquistador

The First Spanish Conquests:The AztecsMontezuma IIvs.17The Death of Montezuma II


Mexico Surrenders to Cortez19Francisco PizarroThe First Spanish Conquests: The IncasAtahualpavs.

20Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

21Why would the'Columbian Exchange'be considered thetsunami ofunintentional"bio-terrorism"??22The Columbian Exchange

Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE Syphilis Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox Flu Typhus Measles Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough Trinkets Liquor GUNS23Cycle of Conquest & Colonization1. ExplorersConquistadoresMissionariesPermanentSettlers5. OfficialEuropeanColony!24Treasuresfrom the Americas!

25Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

26The Slave TradeExisted in Africa before the coming of the EuropeansPortuguese replaced European slaves with Africans (slave from Slav)Sugar cane & sugar plantationsFirst boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countriesBetween 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas27Slave Ship

Middle Passage28Coffin Position Below Deck

29African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!30European Empires in the Americas

31The Colonial Class SystemPeninsularesCreolesMestizosMulattosNative IndiansBlack Slaves32Spanish Empire in the New WorldEncomienda -natives used as forced laborCouncil of the IndiesViceroyNew Spain and PeruPapal agreement

33The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Spanish Mission341494-Treaty of Tordesillas Popes Line of DemarcationBetw. Spain & port.

35Father Bartolome de Las Casas

New Laws 154236New Colonial RivalsPortugal lacked numbers & wealth to dominate trade in Indian ocean1591-1st English expedition to the Indies drove out Portg. (India becomes British colony)1595-Dutch-Netherlands-Dutch East India Company Kicked out Portg.-Monopolized trade -Spice Is. East Asia-(cloves)37New Colonial Rivals

38***Negative Impact of European Exploration ------Native populations ravaged by disease.ex.Native pop. Enslaved- Native Americas .Slave Trade Caused a Diaspora of African people/Middle passage/Sugar mills etc.

39Impact-----Wars & power struggles betw. Europeans (for control of land in the new areas/control of & trade) ex; French Indian War between.natives used in the wars etc.

Impact of Exploration----Natives-Indigenous people lost culture/religion /traditions forced to adapt European ways..ex-Maya/Incas/Aztec and the conquers.

Positive ImpactInflux of gold, and silver, into Europe created wealth+++++

New products +/_introduced across continents -Columbian Exchange+/-both positive and negative

+Impact of Age of ExplorationBrought technology/created Industries-money systemCreated railroads/roads/canals/.schools/hospitalsEmergence of the modern worldU.S -Reduced local warfare betw. Tribes-tribes stopped fighting

EXTENDED RESPONSESEssayThe Age of European Exploration and conquest had both negative and positive consequences Explain the positive and negative effects of the age of ex/colonization 5. New Patterns of World Trade