The American and French Revolutions

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The causes of, key people in , and common outcomes of Revolutionary activities. . The American and French Revolutions. Defining Revolution. ‘Revolt” and “Revolution” - in your books write down your definition for these words http://dictionary.reference.com/ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The American and French Revolutions

The American Revolution

The American and French RevolutionsThe causes of, key people in , and common outcomes of Revolutionary activities. Defining RevolutionRevolt and Revolution - in your books write down your definition for these wordshttp://dictionary.reference.com/In your opinion, what are some common reasons people might revolt? What kind of person do you think typically leads a revolution? Do you think a revolution is something that happens quickly or over time? Why? Once a government has been overthrown, how long do you think it would take for new leaders to establish a different form of government and make it run effectively?

Revolutions throughout timehttp://www.pbs.org/marieantoinette/revolution/what_is_revolution.htmlThe above map portrays a selection of major revolutions or revolution attempts that occurred in the 200 years following the American Revolution. Though their causes and outcomes were all different, the revolutions on this map all represent attempts at forcible government overthrown by those being ruled.This global perspective provides an insight into humans historic struggle to govern, collaborate, and thrive together. Revolution has been around as long as people have, changing the way we think, work, worship, and live. But: Does a revolution always have a definite and identifiable (specific) outcome? Is somebody always the winner, and somebody else the loser? Who Leads Revolutions?A common misconception is that revolutions happen when ordinary people join together and rise up against authority.For a revolution to really take hold, a large section of a population typically does need to feel a pressing need for societal (community) change. Revolutions are historically led by people who are not "just plain folks." Revolutionary leaders usually possess something extra: additional education, connections to existing authority, a leadership position within the repressed community, or simply a profound charisma or oratory gift that helps them influence, persuade and lead. This doesn't mean that revolutionary leaders do not empathize with their followers; indeed, many have lived the same struggles. But this is not always the case.Beyond Political RevolutionsThe term "revolution" can refer to many types of massive change that affect society in extreme ways. The British Agricultural Revolution, which happened between the 16th and 19th centuries, refers to a time of extraordinary agricultural output, mostly due to better farming methods and mechanization. This upturn in agricultural success supported a huge population growth, which freed a lot of workers to leave farming and pour into the workforce.The concept of revolution also reaches into other areas of daily life. The Italian Renaissance of the 15th century was a time when the way in which the Western world created art, wrote poetry, designed architecture.Social revolutions include the Sexual Revolution, when the invention of the birth control pill in 1960 offered women access to reliable contraception. Social scientists theorize that this pharmaceutical development impacted sexual behaviour, attitudes, and more throughout the Western world, and redefined women's views of education and career. Finally, the computer on which you're reading this was developed during the Digital Revolution, which refers to an ongoing transformation that began in the early 1980s. The plummeting cost and rapid improvement of digital devices made these tools more widely available, affecting the way we do our jobs, entertain ourselves, and even communicate with one another.

Summary - RevolutionWhat is a revolution?Who usually leads a revolution?Name one revolution discussed in class and briefly describe it.Answers:Revolution a drastic and far-reaching change in societal ways of thinking and behaving; sudden or momentous change in a society and social structureThe overthrow of a government and its replacement by another

LeadersNo one is born a revolutionary leader, and there is no one set formula for how people become revolutionary leaders. Each revolutionary leader is a complex mix of personal life experiences and broader social experience. Revolutionary leaders can be of any race, nationality, either gender, and come from many different backgrounds. Revolutionary leaders usually possess something extra: additional education, connections to existing authority, a leadership position, or just intense charisma or a public speaking gift that helps them influence, persuade and lead.

American and French RevolutionFrom an historical perspective, the French and American Revolutions have greatly influenced revolutionary activity on a global scale and that the impact of these historical events continues in the world even today.The American Revolution (175481, Revolutionary War 1775).

The American Revolution The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free of the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America. Liberty The American Revolutionhttp://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5602751196414323436#(53.56 mins)

ColoniesColonists migrated from Europe to the Americas:for economic reasons and religious freedomLife was difficult for the first settlers . They built cities from scratch, and brought civilization to the wild lands. Before and during the French and Indian War, from about 1650 to 1763, Britain essentially left its American colonies to run themselves.Europes View of The Colonies

Europeans viewed the colonies as their property. The colonies existed in order to serve their home nation. The colonies produced crops and goods that could then be shipped back to their mother country in order to enrich those who lived there. The colonies were expected to remain loyal to their mother country.Colonies were controlled by governors which were appointed by the crown.

Colonies View of Europe

Many of the inhabitants of the colonies had come to the Americas in order to escape persecution, for their religious or extreme political views. Many of the colonists had been born in the Americas, and had never visited Europe. They considered themselves Americans, and not Europeans. Increasingly their loyalty was to the colony, and not to the distant mother country. Colonies began to tire of the restrictions placed on them by their mother countries. These restrictions favoured their parent nations, but made life more difficult for the colonies.The British Empire Goes To War

In 1760 a new king came to power in Great Britain named King George III. George III used the powerful British Navy to wage war with France. These wars brought the British Empire vast new territory, including all of Canada, as well as all the land in North America East of the Mississippi River. This war, which greatly enlarged the territories of Great Britain proved to be very costly, and nearly bankrupt the national treasury. King George III was as a result in desperate need of raising funds to keep his government operating. To do this, he looked to the colonies in the Americas.

The Stamp Act

To help cover the cost of the war between Great Britain and France, British officials began to establish new taxes in the Colonies. In 1765 a tax was passed by Great Britain known as the stamp act. This law required all colonists to pay a tax to Great Britain on all of the printed materials that they used, newspapers, magazines, and even playing cards. Colonist were outraged, and responded by boycotting all British goods. They also attacked officials who were sent by Great Britain to enforce the stamp act, and burned the stamps in the street. Many of the colonies sent representatives to a special meeting in New York, which they called The Stamp Act Congress.As a result, the British Parliament repealed the stamp act just one year later in 1766. Parliament in Great Britain had lost the battle over the stamp act.

Summary - RevolutionWho are the colonies (place) and colonists (people)?Why did the colonists migrate to the Americas?Describe how life was for the colonists?Describe how the colonists (teenagers) viewed Europe and Europeans (parents).Describe how Europe and the Europeans (parents)viewed the colonists (teenagers).Why did King George III introduce the Stamp Act?How did the Americans (colonists) react to the Stamp Act? WHY?

The Boston Massacre

The Parliament in Great Britain was determined to assert their control over the colonies. In 1766 they passed a new decree that reaffirmed their right to pass laws regarding the colonies. The next year they passed a number of new taxes, including a tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea. The colonies were again outraged, and many refused to pay them. In order to enforce these new tax laws, British officials requested military troops to aid them. These military troops outraged the colonists. In the Winter of 1770 a small group of colonists in Boston were taking out their frustration with the troops by taunting them, and throwing snowballs at them. In retaliation, these soldiers opened fire, killing four of the Bostonians. This event became known as the Boston Massacre. The events of the Boston Massacre were spread quickly by newspapers throughout the colonies further angering colonists. As a result, Great Britain was forced to once again repeal all of the new taxes they had enacted. However, in order to send a message that they were still in charge, they left the tax on tea in place.

18The Boston Tea Party

The tax on tea that Parliament had passed greatly effected the tea business in the colonies. The price of tea in the Americas increased, making it more difficult for tea growers, producers, and shippers to survive. In order to insure that British companies would not be hurt by this new tax, Parliament pa