The American Colonies
Native American CultureWay of life varied based on location: Farmers, Nomadic, etc.: Not all Native Americans are the sameOrganized by kinship groups: Clans and tribesFollowed religious rituals and believed in earthly spirits and forces: Believed in multiple spirits of the earth such as wind, fire, rain, etc.Oral History and traditionUsed barter system across regionsBELIEVED LAND SHOULD NOT AND COULD NOT BE OWNED- It was everybodys
Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to have three ships.The three ships were: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. He landed in the Bahama Islands on October 12, 1492. His exploration ushered in the AGE OF EXPLORATION Picture Credit:http://www.mariner.org/age/columbus.html
Christopher ColumbusAlso named San Salvador meaning Holy Savior.He saw people and named them Indians because he thought that he was in the West Indies.
Columbian ExchangeAs a result of Columbuss voyages to the New World, an exchange began between the Americas and the rest of the world.Cultural Diffusion- Spread ofCulture throughout the world
Americas to EuropeEurope to AmericasPotatoes & TomatoesSugar, Tea, CoffeeMaize, (Corn)Horses, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, ratsTobaccoDiseases (smallpox, measles, whooping cough, bubonic plague, malaria, yellow fever )ChocolateAsian cockroaches, Japanese beetle
Countries- Francea.) Active in fur tradeb.) Canada and lands west of Appalachian MountainsSpaina.) Active in Florida and American Southwestb.) Established St. Augustine- FIRST permanent settlement in what will become the U.S.Englanda.) Slow to become involved worried of expenseb.) Will come to dominate East coast of North America WHY?- GOD, GOLD, and GLORY!!!
Types of Colonies: JOINT STOCK Companies (Charter Colony)Joint-Stock Companies Owned by a corporation and stock holders Economic ventures Elected own officials Jamestown, Virginia- Virginia Company
Types of Colonies: Proprietary Owned by a person or family after land is given from king or queenMake laws and appoint officials as they saw fit
Types of Colonies: ROYAL COLONYUnder direct control of the King and he appoints the Royal Governor who appoints other officialsBy the time of the Revolutionary War- all colonies were considered Royal- Controlled by the King
England Starts BadlyThe English Colonies were established for a variety of reasons but mainly for RELIGION and WEALTHRoanokea.) Multiple attempts to establish colony in North Carolina (Virginia)b.) Close to 100 colonists disappearedc.) Croatoan
JamestownFirst permanent ENGLISH settlement in North America- 1607Named in honor of King JamesLocated in VirginiaFamous Leader- John SmithAided by local Natives including PocahontasColony saved by Tobacco and John Rolfe
JamestownCritical to the early survival of Jamestown was the policies of the Native Americans that allowed them to establish a settlement- a decision they no doubt regretted laterFirst permanent ENGLISH settlement in North America- 1607Virginia Company of London: Intended for short term gain and then to be abandonedNamed in honor of King JamesLocated in VirginiaThe CHARTER was important because it clearly stated that colonist would have the same rights as English citizens
JamestownEarly Years- Were a nightmare40 would be colonists died during the initial voyage (1606-07)Dozens more died once on shore of disease, malnutrition, and starvationThe colonists were more concerned with finding gold so they spent their time searching for this instead of hunting the abundant game and fishing
Jamestown: The Starving TimeDespite effective leadership by John Smith and the aid of the Natives, the colonists were still dying in drovesWere reduced to eat dogges, Catts, Ratts, and Myce. (31)Some even dug up corpses and one man was executed for killing his wife and salting her to eatOf 400 hundred in Virginia in 1609- only 60 survived the starving time of winter 1609-10
John RolfeSaved Jamestown because he brought tobacco seedsTobacco grew well in the Virginia climateEuropeans couldnt get enough of it and Jamestown became a profitable colony at long lastColonists would grow it in the streets and even between graves. They even had to import their foodWore out the land, also was labor intensive which meant more labor would be needed- Guess Who?
The PilgrimsWent from England to Holland to North America in search of religious tolerance: Took 66 daysWere considered Separatists from the Puritans which wanted to purify the churchSettled the Plymouth Colony in MA in 1620Mayflower Compact: Named for their ship / Contract between the Pilgrims / Common good / 1st example of consent to be governed- similar to our constitution: FOUNDATION OF SELF GOVERNMENT
ThanksgivingPilgrims didnt take the land from Natives- tribe had all diedWas probably between Sept-Nov, most likely Oct.Celebrated in 1621 but not again for many yearsG. Washington proclaimed 1st national Thanksgiving in 1789A. Lincoln made it national holiday for last Thursday in NovemberFD Roosevelt moved it to the second to last Thursdaywhy?
THINK!:What impacted the development of the distinct cultures of the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies?
New England ColoniesConnecticutMassachusettsNew HampshireRhode Island(Maine- will break from MA)
New England ColoniesReasons: Religious, Establish Puritan society, and Fur TradeEconomy: Fishing, Ship building, whaling and Fur TradeImportant People:- Roger Williams: Established Providence, Rhode Island and First Baptist Religion in America- Thomas Hooker: Puritan who founded Connecticut
Middle ColoniesNew York (Taken from Dutch)New Jersey (From Dutch)PennsylvaniaDelaware
Middle ColoniesReasons: Expansion, Religious Tolerance, FreedomEconomy: Trade, Farming, and Lumber
William PennEstablished Quaker Pennsylvania, Wrote democratic constitution, Called for fair treatment of Natives, and wanted union of colonies
Southern ColoniesVirginiaMarylandGeorgiaThe Carolinas- Later North and South
Southern ColoniesReasons: Gold, Escape Debt (Georgia), Land wealth, ReligiousEconomy: Tobacco, Rice, Indigo Crops: Labor intensive crops- Need for slavesTobacco and John Rolfe saved Jamestown and Virginia
Important PeopleCaptain John Smith- Led Jamestown, Helped it prosper, Those who dont work, dont eatJohn Rolfe- First successful cultivation of tobacco- became main export cropPocahontas- Credited with helping to save John Smith and help colony survive. Married John Rolfe- Lived in England
What impacted the development of the distinct cultures of the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies?Religion, Economy, and Climate
SLAVERYAfrican slaves were first taken to Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and South America in the early 1500sWere brought over as part of Triangular Trade between Africa, Europe, and the AmericasPortion of trip that brought slaves was the Middle PassageWere seen as better workers than Natives because more immune to diseases1638- African Male cost $27 dollars (European Labor: $.70/ day)Originally used for servants for the rich- Later more manual labor and violent