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MAINSTKI-AMPUBLISHING8 1 8 5 1 5 8 4 7 5 8 1
The Big Bands Go To War
Chris WayIntroduction by Robert Farnon
E D I N B U R G H A N D L O N D O N
ToRobert J. Farnon
Jimmy Miller John Miller
the late Cecil Madden and
my dear father
Copyright Chris Way, 1991
All rights reserved
The moral right of the author has been asserted
First published in Great Britain 1991 by MAINSTREAM PUBLISHING COMPANY (EDINBURGH) LTD 7 Albany Street Edinburgh EH1 3UG
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any other means without the permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a review written for insertion in a magazine, newspaper or broadcast.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataWay, Chris
The Big Bands Go To War1. Military bands, historyI. Title 355.34
ISBN 1 85158 475 7
Typeset in 10/12 Garamond by BEECEE Typesetting Services Printed in Great Britain by Mackays of Chatham Pic
ContentsAcknowledgments 7Authors Note 9Foreword 13Preface 15Introduction 17The Army Air Forces Training Command Orchestra 19Tex Beneke and his US Navy Band 1943 - 45 21The British Band of the AEF 22Lt. Larry Clinton and his AAF Band 61Lt. Bob Crosby and his Fleet Marine Force Orchestra 1944 - 45 62Sam Donahue and the US Navy Band 1944 - 45 63Eighth Air Force Dance Bands 77Captain Robert Famon and the Canadian Band of the AEF 1944-45 79Jimmy Heffner and the Seabees Dance Orchestra 159Captain Wayne King and his US Army Band 160Manhattan Beach Coast Guard Band 1942 45 161Maritime Service Training Station Band 1 9 4 2 -4 5 162Glenn Miller and his Army Air Force Orchestra 1943 - 45 163The No. 1 Balloon Centre Dance Orchestra (The Skyrockets) 1940 - 45 202The Royal Air Force Dance Orchestra (The Squadronaires) 1940 - 45 209The Royal Army Ordnance Corps Dance Orchestra (The Blue Rockets) 253The Royal Marines Commando Training Unit Dance Band (The Marineers) 257 The Royal Navy Swing Octet (The Blue Mariners) 1942 - 45 258The 718th Army Air Forces Band 261Artie Shaw and the US Navy Rangers Band 1942 - 44 264The 64th Army Band 1942 - 45 270The US Army Band 271Claude Thornhill and his US Navy Band 1 9 4 2 -4 5 272Lt. Rudy Vallee and the US Coast Guard Band 273Major Meredith Willson
and The Armed Forces Radio Service Orchestra 1942 - 45 274Winged Victory Show 275Sound Recordings 276Index 283
As usual with this kind of undertaking, thanks are due to many individuals and organisations for help and advice. First and foremost, I must express my sincere appreciation to five gentlemen in particular, without any one of whom this book would not have materialised. In order, they are my good friends: expresident Ronald Reagan, without whose help in opening many doors this book could never have been finished and who has assisted me ever since; the late Cecil Madden who offered as much information and a number of photographs held in his collection for use in this project; Robert Famon, former leader of the Canadian Army Orchestra, better known as the Canadian Band of the AEF, who has not only given generously of his time and his recollections, but also wrote the introduction to this book; the late John Herbert Miller, better known as Herb, younger brother of Glenn Miller, whose help and guidance on rare details of his elder brother, and his own wartime service has been invaluable; and Jimmy Miller, former leader of the Royal Air Force Dance Orchestra, The Squadronaires, who at a minutes notice would drop everything, pick up his telephone and pass on rare stories and details about their wartime broadcasts and concerts. A further note of thanks to Jimmy for writing the books preface.
To all the bandleaders and musicians who sent letters and cassettes I express my sincere thanks: Ray McKinley, Artie Shaw, the late Sam Donahue, Pat Dodd, George Chisholm, Ronnie Aldrich, Artie Malvin, John Best, John Miller (Herb Millers son), Rubin Zeke Zarchy, George Voutsas, the late Jerry Gray, the late Johnny Desmond, Gordon Tex Beneke, the late Paul Fenoulhet, Billy Amstall, Michael Peanuts Hucko, the late Donald W. Haynes. Also, very great thanks to the many famous singers and BBC announcers who helped with this project: Anne Shelton, Gloria Brent, Paula Green, Bruce Trent, the late Bing Crosby, the late David Niven, Jean Metcalfe, Alan Dell, Richard Clegg, Sheila Tracy, the late Ronald Waldman, Teddy Gower, Max Muller, and the late Henry Whiston (CBC Canada).
In addition, many other individuals have helped in various ways: in particular Mike Morris, who sent on everything he could on many rare bands; Richard C. March (Secretary of the Glenn Miller Society), David Ades (Secretary of the Robert Famon Society), Phillip Amould, Geoffrey Butcher, Edward F. Polic, Tony Middleton, Larry Semmel, Harry Long, Roland Taylor
T h e B ig B a n d s go t o W a r
(Chairman of the Glenn Miller Society), Joannie Miller-Soper (Glenn Millers daughter), Stephen D. Miller (Glenn Millers son), Irene Woolfe (Glenn Millers sister), Victor Way, Frank Driggs, William Manley, Charles Ward, John Charman, Douglas Le-Vicki, Paul Holroyd, Stan Bruce, Burt Beckham, Phillip Farlow, Geoffrey Gardner, Eric Hamilton, Glenn Mittler, William Trueden, Royal D. Frey (ex-curator of the United States Air Force Museum at Dayton, Ohio), George Way and Gerry Didymus.
Thanks are also due to those in various organisations who have willingly placed their resources at my disposal: Mrs J. Kavanagh, head of the BBC Written Archives Centre, and her staff; Miss Bobby Mitchell from the BBC Stills Library; Mr Edward Inman, director of the Imperial War Museum at Duxford Airfield, near Cambridge; the United States Archives at the US airforce base at Maxwell Field, Alabama, and the National Archives in Washington DC.
Because Glenn Millers AAFTC/AEF Orchestra is now well documented in three books which have been published over the last five years, we have not included a day-to-day activities listing, like the other selections in this book. Please refer to either Next to a Letter from Home by Geoffrey Butcher, In the Miller Mood or I Sustain the Wings by Edward F. Polic.
Acknowledgments are also due to the following for use of photographs: BBC Hulton Picture Library, Bedfordshire Times, Tex Beneke, Donald W. Haynes, Cecil Madden, Jack Marshall, Louis Lawrence, Ivor Richmond, the Glenn Miller Estate, Frank Ippolito, US Army, Artie Shaw, US Air Force and Yale University.
Thanks are due to the following for permission to use copyright material: the Glenn Miller Society, the Miller Estate, the Robert Famon Society, the US Air Force, Edward F. Polic, Geoffrey Butcher and Melody Maker.
My thanks to you all.
During the period 1939 to 1945, the world was at war. During that period more than any other in history the radio played an important role for the Allied nations at war. Along with this came perhaps some of this centurys most famous names Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby, Anne Shelton, Vera Lynn, Glenn Miller, and many more. Just before the war had started in the late 1930s, the swing era had been bom, bringing with it such famous name bands as Artie Shaw, Benny Goodman, Ambrose, Jack Payne, Tommy Dorsey, Glenn Miller and many others. From within the ranks of these orchestras came the young and very talented musicians who would be drafted into the Allied Armed Forces. It all started on a quiet Sunday morning in September 1939. The first of the famous services bands to be formed was the Royal Air Force Dance Orchestra, better known as the Squadronaires. For the next six years this uniformed band would entertain millions both on the radio and in person. The Squadronaires were formed in March 1940. By the autumn of 1940, another RAF band was formed, the Number One Balloon Centre Band, better known as the Skyrockets. Other British bands would follow the RAOC Blue Rockets, the Royal Navy Dance Band and the Royal Marines Dance Band. Together, they contained the cream of British musicians.
With Britain at war and countries of the Empire also fighting the Nazis, it was not long before the Canadians were also forming bands and service orchestras. Over in Canada a young composer and conductor named Robert Famon had joined the Canadian Army as a Captain. His Canadian Army Orchestra would soon travel to Britain, spreading his musical ideas both on radio and in person. The United States of America were brought into the war on Sunday, 7 December 1941 and with the Yanks came their own musicians. Many were drafted into the armed forces long before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. America had been more or less on a war footing since January 1941 and the draft had affected quite a few bands, with the whole situation worsening as the year progressed. America was now on an all-out war footing. Whole bands fell apart and, to make matters worse, the United States had petrol on ration. The first leader to enlist was Artie Shaw in April 1942. Glenn Miller followed in the September of that year.
By 1943, Artie Shaw was on a tour of the Pacific and Glenn Miller was a Captain in the Army Air Forces, with another orchestra.
T h e B ig Ba n d s g o t o War
A year later Captain Glenn Miller and his Army Air Forces Orchestra were in Britain, broadcasting over the AEF (Allied Expeditionary Forces) programme and performing at bases all over the country.
Many other bands were formed and took part in similar operations all over the war-torn world. Glenns is perhaps the most famous. As Glenns band was known in England as The American Band of the AEF , what then was the British and how was that formed and run? Also what about the Canadian AEF Orchestra, whose radio work included nearly seven shows a week over the AEF programme?
Perhaps the memories for those that lived through those wartime days are now enhanced, flooding back with stories of Bing Crosby in London; Glenn Miller in Bedford; George Melachrino leading his British AEF and Army Radio Orchestra; lesser-known musicians like pianist Ronald Selby and Jack Russin; stories of Anne Shelton singing with Glenn Miller and Fred Astaire dancing at Rainbow Comer .
Over the years my interest and enthusiasm for this music has, if anything, increased and I remain convinced that the AEF programme was the greatest radio network of all time.
For me, it all started with Glenn Miller and a 78rpm recording owned by my late mother and her stories of that wartime radio network. I then became curious to know how it all came about the mysterious circumstances of Glenn Millers death; my meeting with the late great Cecil Madden; my friendship with Glenns brother Herb and his son John.
All this leads on to the writing of this book. Not only was there Glenn Miller, but many other famous wartime bands like our own RAF Squadronaires. Their leader was Jimmy Miller, who has provided me with some really great insights into a long forgotten story. Bob Famon has also given so much help as well as the preface for this book. Pat Dodd, the famous pianist from the Skyrockets Band, although ill at the time, sat down and shared his ideas and stories . . .
The work is a gathering of material from many sources. It is based primarily on contemporary official documents, including British and American radio archives (particularly those of the BBC) and the US military records, together with published accounts of the bands activities and reminiscences of people associated with the various groups listed. Other details come from the records held by the late BBC producer Cecil Madden. Many of the details were sent on for an earlier book, written and produced by me called In the Miller Mood, a bio-discography of the Glenn Miller Service Orchestra.
In order to make this book useful as a work of reference as well as a straightforward story of each of the famous service bands, it has been divided into two parts: Part One gives a chronological narrative of each band how it was formed and what it did plus personal reminiscences of many musicians and band-leaders; Part Two gives a complete listing of the many radio broadcasts of these service bands, plus known details of recording sessions. Not all bands are
A u t h o r s N o te
listed as some never broadcast at all and only performed at troop recruiting and war bond rallies. Others only toured battle zones and never broadcast on a regular series, while other smaller bands were formed for station dances.
Being leader of the Herb Miller Orchestra, founded here in England in 1981 by my late father Herb Miller, I am very proud to introduce this new book by my good friend Chris Way.
If you wish to acquaint yourself with the many fine service orchestras of World War Two, I cannot think of a finer piece of work than this book. It is told by perhaps the finest author in his field. Herb and myself often called Chris the greatest living expert on my late uncle, Glenn Miller. However, this book goes one step further and recalls all the other great service bands of that period.
This is without a doubt the missing chapter on some of the greatest Allied Services bands of World War Two. As my late Uncle Glenn once said, It brings a hunk o home to millions upon millions of Yanks, Tommies and Johnny Cannacks . This brings everything into focus and it tells just what happened When the Big Bands Went to War .
John Miller, February 1991
It is now just over fifty years since I became leader of the now legendary Royal Air Force Dance Orchestra, better known as the Squadronaires. We played and performed many times during our time in the forces, for our brother servicemen, both here in the British Isles and on the continent of Europe, in the later stages of World War Two. We were just one of several famous service bands formed from the musicians being drafted into the forces. Among our ranks were some of the finest British musicians of all time. Sadly only six of our number now remain. But it is with great joy that we will now never be forgotten for what we did during the period of World War Two, for you will be able to read our story and many of the other service bands stories in this book by Chris Way.
What memories are evoked of the AEF orchestras, led by Major Glenn Miller, RSM George Melachrino, and Bob Famon. Many old friends are included Sam Donahue, Paul Fenoulhet, and many others. I remember with pride the time when I sang with Captain Glenn Millers American Band of the AEF, on a summer evening, at Bedford in late July 1944. Other memories come flooding back when my wife Mary and I were in the Paris Cinema when Bing Crosby appeared with RSM George Melachrino and his British Band of the AEF, in late August 1944. Oh, sweet memories, but some not so sweet like Doodle-bugs , the Blitz of 1940 and rationin...