The Cell Cycle. What is the molecule that carries chemical energy throughout the cell? ATP

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    24-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • The Cell Cycle
  • Slide 2
  • What is the molecule that carries chemical energy throughout the cell? ATP
  • Slide 3
  • What does ATP stand for? Adenisine triphosphate
  • Slide 4
  • What is the molecule that results from the loss of a phosphate group in ATP? ADP
  • Slide 5
  • What does ADP stand for? Adenisine diphosphate
  • Slide 6
  • Which produces the most ATP when it is broken down? Carbs, lipids, or proteins? Lipids
  • Slide 7
  • What is the name of the process that organisms use to produce energy other than photosynthesis? Chemosynthesis
  • Slide 8
  • Name of the process through which energy from sunlight is captured and used to make sugars that store chemical energy is ______________ Photosynthesis
  • Slide 9
  • A molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some the energy in visible light is called ______________ Chlorophyll
  • Slide 10
  • What are the main two types of chlorophyll in plants? Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
  • Slide 11
  • What are the two main parts of chloroplasts needed for photosynthesis? Grana and stroma
  • Slide 12
  • What makes up the grana? thylakoids
  • Slide 13
  • This type of reaction captures energy from sunlight Light-dependent
  • Slide 14
  • This type of reaction uses energy from light-dependent reactions Light-independent
  • Slide 15
  • The ____ ________ is the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells. Cell cycle
  • Slide 16
  • What are the four main stages of the cell cycle? Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, and Mitosis
  • Slide 17
  • What happens in a cell during the Gap I stage of the cell cycle? The cell carries out its normal functions. It increases in size and increases in the number of organelles.
  • Slide 18
  • The combining of parts to make a whole is called ___________ synthesis
  • Slide 19
  • What happens during Gap 2 in the cell cycle? It is a stage of additional growth before actual cell division occurs.
  • Slide 20
  • What are the two processes of mitosis? Mitosis and cytokinesis
  • Slide 21
  • The division of the nucleus and its contents. mitosis
  • Slide 22
  • In what stage of the cell cycle does the nuclear membrane dissolve? Mitosis
  • Slide 23
  • The process in the cell cycle that divides the cytoplasm. Cytokinesis
  • Slide 24
  • Why do prokaryotic cells divide faster than eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic cells do not have the membrane bound organelles that the eukaryotic cells have. Fewer steps in the division process.
  • Slide 25
  • Cells that rarely divide are in what stage of the cell cycle? G
  • Slide 26
  • What sets the upper limit to cell size? The ratio of cell surface area to volume.
  • Slide 27
  • DNA is a double stranded molecule made of four different subunits called ___________. nucleotides
  • Slide 28
  • One long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes. chromosome
  • Slide 29
  • How many chromosomes do human body cells have? 46
  • Slide 30
  • The protein that helps to condense DNA. histone
  • Slide 31
  • In the G 1 stage, cells increase in _______, _______, and _________. Size, organelles, number
  • Slide 32
  • The ______ at which cells divide is linked to your bodys need for those cells. rate
  • Slide 33
  • If cells were too small, what could they not contain? Organelles and large molecules
  • Slide 34
  • If a cell did not double its size before dividing, what can be said of the daughter cells? They would be smaller
  • Slide 35
  • One half of a duplicated chromosome is called a _______. chromatid
  • Slide 36
  • Two identical chromatids are called ____________. Sister chromatids
  • Slide 37
  • Sister chromatids are held together at the __________. centromere
  • Slide 38
  • The ends of DNA molecules form structures called ________. telomeres
  • Slide 39
  • Repeating nucleotides that do not form genes. They prevent the ends of chromosomes from accidentally attaching to each other. telomeres
  • Slide 40
  • What are the four main phases of mitosis? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  • Slide 41
  • Describe what happens during prophase. The DNA condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and spindle fibers form.
  • Slide 42
  • In what stage of mitosis does cytokinesis usually begin? At the end of anaphase or beginning of telophase
  • Slide 43
  • In what stage of mitosis do the chromosomes align themselves along the cell equator? metaphase
  • Slide 44
  • In what stage of mitosis does the nuclear membrane start to reform? telophase
  • Slide 45
  • The stage of the cell cycle after the completion of mitosis where the cytoplasm divides. cytokinesis
  • Slide 46
  • How does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells? In an animal cell the cell membrane forms a trench and pinches closed. In a plant cell the membrane cannot pinch inward because of the cell wall. A cell plate forms instead.
  • Slide 47
  • What is the difference between single celled and multicellular organisms and their use of mitosis? Single celled organisms use mitosis for reproduction and replication while multicellular organisms use mitosis for growth and repair.
  • Slide 48
  • In what stage of mitosis do sister chromatids separate? anaphase
  • Slide 49
  • A broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division. Growth factors
  • Slide 50
  • ________ store a type of growth factor that helps the body repair wounds. platelets
  • Slide 51
  • ___________ stimulates the production of red blood cells. erythropoietin
  • Slide 52
  • An enzyme that, when activated, transfers a phosphate group from one molecule to another. kinase
  • Slide 53
  • A group of proteins that are rapidly made and destroyed at certain points in the cell cycle. cyclins
  • Slide 54
  • Programmed cell death. apoptosis
  • Slide 55
  • A common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division. cancer
  • Slide 56
  • Cancer cells form disorganized clumps called ________. tumors
  • Slide 57
  • A type of tumor in which the cells remain clumped together. These cells are relatively harmless. benign
  • Slide 58
  • The breaking away of cancer cells from a tumor. metastasize
  • Slide 59
  • A type of tumor where the cancer cells break away and move to other parts of the body. malignant
  • Slide 60
  • Substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer. carcinogens
  • Slide 61
  • Sexual reproduction involves the joining of two specialized cells called ________. gametes
  • Slide 62
  • What are the two types of gamete cells? Egg and sperm cells
  • Slide 63
  • The creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes. Asexual reproduction
  • Slide 64
  • In this type of reproduction, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Asexual reproduction
  • Slide 65
  • Most prokaryotes reproduce through _______ _________. Binary fission
  • Slide 66
  • Sexual reproduction increases genetic ________. diversity
  • Slide 67
  • What is the primary disadvantage of asexual reproduction? If the environment changes, the species may not be able to adapt and the entire population could die off
  • Slide 68
  • A type of reproduction in which a small projection grows on the surface of the parent organism, forming a separate new individual. budding
  • Slide 69
  • A type of reproduction where the parent organism splits into pieces, each of which can grow into a new organism. fragmentation
  • Slide 70
  • _______ and _______ can reproduce by budding. Yeasts and hydras
  • Slide 71
  • Groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function. tissues
  • Slide 72
  • Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function are called ________. organs
  • Slide 73
  • Organs that carry out similar functions are called are grouped into ____________ Organ systems
  • Slide 74
  • The process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions is called ___________ Cell differentiation
  • Slide 75
  • What does a cells location within an embryo help determine? How it will differentiate
  • Slide 76
  • What are the 3 abilities of a stem cell? Divide and renew themselves for long periods of time Remain undifferentiated Develop into a variety of specialized cell types
  • Slide 77
  • A stem cell that can grow into any other cell type is called ____________ totipotent
  • Slide 78
  • A stem cell that can grow into any cell type except totipotent cells is called ___________ pluripotent
  • Slide 79
  • A stem cell that can grow into only cells of a closely related function are called _____________ multipotent
  • Slide 80
  • What stem cell classification would adult stem cells fall under? multipotent
  • Slide 81
  • What is another name for adult stem cells? Somatic stem cells