The Center for Academic Excellence presents . . . IN-TEXT CITATION Avoiding Plagiarism. Academic writing often involves quotation. We cite what others have said on topics of interest to us, either to elucidate a point, or to corroborate a claim that we have made. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Center for Academic Excellence presents . . . IN-TEXT CITATIONAvoiding Plagiarism
1Academic writing often involves quotation. We cite what others have said on topics of interest to us, either to elucidate a point, or to corroborate a claim that we have made.
2It is, of course, our ethical responsibility to give credit where credit is due. It is not fair to use the original ideas of others without crediting the source.
3When we present information derived from a source other than our own mind, it is our responsibility to say where that information came from. Unless the information can reasonably be deemed common knowledge, scholars must acknowledge their sources.
4The question, of course, is, What constitutes common knowledge?
Common knowledge is information which can be located in five or more places (i.e., in any number of encyclopedia, in a reference text, in a book, on-line, etc.).
6No matter how quoted material is presented, it must be acknowledged. Please be aware that there are three specific methods of quotation:
7Three Types of Quotation:Direct quotation ParaphraseSummary- copying word for word.- putting into your own words.- briefly restating the writers thought.8Naturally, the goal of in-text citation is to avoid plagiarism, which is the unethical use of anothers words or ideas.Plagiarism amounts to academic theft and those who practice it sometimes face unintended consequences.9 Copying word for word from another source without acknowledging it. Paraphrasing or summarizing another source without acknowledging it. Adopting a particularly apt turn of phrase as if it were your own. Using an image or a copy of an image without crediting the source. Paraphrasing anothers line of thinking as if it were your own. Receiving excessive help from a friend (or, indeed, from any source). Using anothers project as if it were your own.According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, all of the following constitute plagiarism:
The seventh edition of the Handbook suggests that using a project of your own from another class also constitutes plagiarism.10Plagiarism is of two types: Deliberate InadvertentClearly, the former is worse than the latter. However, inadvertent plagiarism is a matter of neglect on the part of the researcher and must be avoided.11In an effort to guard against plagiarism, the Modern Language Association has devised a simple but effective method of signal phrases and parentheses to show where quotations begin and end.Signal Phrases+Parentheses
12The goal, of course, is that readers should know when quoted material of any type is present.
13 A signal phrase is more or less an on switch.
The parenthesis is the off switch. When a reader sees the signal phrase, she is instantly alerted that the material which follows is a quotation and does not originate with the writer. She also knows, as soon as she reaches the parenthesis, that the quotation is over.14 [c]ritical opinion has been unanimous in terming the poetry of Shelley abstractIn-text Citations: The PatternSignal Phrase+ Quotation+ Parenthetic DocumentationAccording to Richard Fogle, (13).15Signal PhrasesSignal phrases are introductory phrases which clue the reader in to the fact that a quotation is coming.
Here are some examples, although the variants are limitless:
According to Bruno Bettelheim . . . In the words of Bruno Bettelheim . . . Dr. Bruno Bettelheim has claimed that . . . The research of Dr. Bruno Bettelheim suggests that . . . To cite Bruno Bettelheim, . . . Dr. Bruno Bettelheim once said, . . . Bruno Bettelheim observed that . . . Dr. Bettelheim explains that . . . Bruno Bettelheim contends that . . . etc.16Now that you have used a signal phrase to set your reader up for a quotation, its time to move on to the quotation itself:
Direct quotation Copying word-for-word.Paraphrase Expressing the writers intent in your own words.Summary Briefly restating the writers ideas.Remember, there are three kinds of quotation:17Direct QuotationsDirect quotations cite the text directlyin other words, you copy the original text word-for-word, with no variation.Of course, direct quotation is as near to plagiarism as you can come.For that reason, direct quotation should be used SPARINGLY.
Direct quotation should only be used to cite (a) poetry, (b) literary passages of exceptional quality, or (c) prose where the authors words are so memorable as to deserve no other form of expression.
18Direct QuotationsIn general, direct quotations are introduced by a signal phrase and a comma:
According to Humphrey House, For thousands now alive a passionate love of Shelley was a major experience in their young development (47).
However, there is no comma required after the word that:
Humphrey House insists that [f]or thousands now alive a passionate love of Shelley was a major experience in their young development (47).
19Types of Direct Quotation:There are essentially two types of direct quotationshort and long.
2. A long quotation consists of four lines or more.1. A short quotation consists of no more than three lines.20Short QuotationsHouse says of Shelley that his poetry enthralls boys (girls rather less, I fancy) as no other poetry enthralls them (47-8).Short quotations are placed inside quotation marks:
21Frost considered the path that lay before him, Then took the other, as just as fair / And having perhaps the better claim / Because it was grassy and wanted wear (5). In other words, he chose the path because it wasnt quite so popular as the other and would give him more leeway as an individual.Short Quotations: PoetryQuoting poetry or song has some special requirements all of its own. When quoting a short selection of poetry, the line divisions must be shown as follows:
*Note that the slash has a space on each side.22Long QuotationsLong quotations are blocked, i.e., they are typographically set apart from the rest of the text by being indented ten spaces. Blocked quotations do not require quotation marks.
23Block Quotation Indent one inch or ten spaces.Block Quotation Indent one inch or ten spaces.Please note, there are no quotation marks at the beginning or end of a block quotation. Spalding 2 assumption merely, both Kreon and Teiresias of political ambition, asserting his assumed superiority over rivals, seers, and the gods themselves in those reckless words:Has your mystic mummery ever approached the truth?When that hellcat the sphinx was performing here,What help were you to these people?Her magic was not for the first man who came along:It demanded a real exorcist. Your birdsWhat good were they? Or the gods, for the matter of that?But I came by,Oedipus, the simple man, who knows nothingI thought it out for myself, no birds helped me!And this is the man you think you can destroy,That you may be close to Kreon when hes king! (759-60) And there we have it. Hubris, overweening pride, is the great flaw that Oedipus has harbored in his heart these many years. Wrath is his downfall now, just as it was all those years earlier when he unwittingly slaughtered his own father and married his mother. It is arrogance, always, which destroys greatness and humbles the mighty. Caesars elevation to the rank of a god could not protect him from the knives of those he called his friends. Hitlers belief in the supremacy of
Note that in a block quotation, the parenthesis goes outside the period.Note that in a block quotation, the parenthesis goes outside the period.Please note, there are no quotation marks at the beginning or end of a block quotation.24Please note that the period includes the parenthetic documentation.Parenthetic DocumentationIf you were paying attention, you would have noticed the presence, at the end of each quotation, of a number in parentheses. The moment you see this parenthetic notation, you know that the quotation is over.
The number, of course, is the page number on which the quotation is found. This number is tied to the Works Cited page at the end of the paper. The signal phrase usually provides the information which the reader needs to locate the appropriate Works Cited entry (either the authors last name, or the title of the book or article). When a signal phrase is not used, then more information may need to be included in the parenthesis.House says of Shelley that his poetry enthralls boys (girls rather less, I fancy) as no other poetry enthralls them (47-8).Apparently, Shelleys poetry enthralls boys . . . as no other poetry enthralls them (House 47-8).Apparently, Shelleys poetry enthralls boys . . . as no other poetry enthralls them (Shelley 47-8).25CongratulationsYou now have the basic pattern established for proper in-text citation and we will move on to the proper format for the Works Cited page. But that is another lesson altogether.PowerPoint Presentation by Mark A. Spalding, BA, MEd, MA, 2007.The End26