The Cold War:1946 - 1991
Part I: Reconstruction & Confrontation
United NationsJune 194550 nations form UN (2009=192)Goal? To prevent warGeneral assemblyAll nations 1 voteSecurity Council15 members5 permanent (US-GB-USSR-China-France) veto power
The Iron CurtainFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
The Ideological StruggleU.S. & the WesternDemocraciesSoviet & Eastern BlocNations(Iron Curtain)GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Space RaceIdeological competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy warsBi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]GOAL spread world-wide Communism
Truman Doctrine  The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who are resisting takeovers We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own wayContainment Policystop the spread of communism!
Marshall Plan European RecoverySecretary of State, George MarshallThe U.S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. Secure democracy$12.5 billion of U.S. aid to Western Europeextended to Eastern Europe & USSR, but rejected
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)Stalin holds up Germany4,000 tons a dayU.S.,GB, Australia, CanadaStalin gives up! Berlin remains democratic.
The Arms RaceThe Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955)U. S. S. R.AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast GermanyHungaryPolandRomania
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
Premier Nikita KhrushchevStalin dies in 1953
Nikita Khrushchev new leader
If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. 1956De-Stalinization
Cuban Missile Crisis
An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American CitizenWho buried who?
Maos Revolution: 1949 A 2nd } Power!
Korea 1950-53North Korea (Kim Il Sung) backed by communist China invade South Korea United Nations steps in with a coalition force4 million Koreans die, 50,000 U.S.38th Parallel hot zone today Dictator Kim Jong Il
The Korean War: A Police Action (1950-1953)Domino Theory
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge!
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col.Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
The Peace CorpsJohn F. KennedyFormed in 1961Subtle cold war actionSince 1960, more than 195,000 people have served as Peace Corps volunteers in 139 countries.
1961 Bay of PigsFidel Castro takes control of Cuba in 1959 (overthrew US-backed dictator Batista)Castro takes U.S. oil refineries in Cuba. U.S. stops buying Cuban sugar. Castro takes over U.S. businesses in CubaU.S. attempts to overthrow Castro.1,300 exiles armed with U.S. weapons land at Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) They were quickly defeated.
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
Paris, 1961Khrushchev & JFK meet. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be manipulated.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)Checkpoint Charlie
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Khruschev and Castro
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Vietnam War: 1965-1973
PolandThe reform movement that ended communism in East Central Europe began in Poland.Solidarity, an anti-Communist movement, had forced Poland's Communist government to recognize it in 1980 through a wave of strikes that gained international attention. Led by Lech WalesaIn 1981, Poland's Communist authorities, under pressure from Moscow, declared martial law, arrested Solidarity's leaders, and banned it. The movement simply went underground.
U.S.S.R.In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev paved the way for political and economic reforms in East Central Europe.Gorbachev abandoned the "Brezhnev Doctrine" the Soviet Union's policy of intervening with military force, if necessary, to preserve Communist rule in the region. Instead, he encouraged the Communist leaders to seek ways of gaining popular support for their rule. Glasnost: Openness, less censorshipPerestroika: economic reform, some capitalism
Gorbachev, tear down this wall! 1987
Poland, againIn Poland, the Communists entered into round-table talks with a reinvigorated Solidarity. As a result, Poland held its first competitive elections since before World War II, and in 1989, Solidarity formed the first non-Communist government within the Soviet bloc since 1948. 1990 Lech Walesa elected President of Democratic
Fall of the Berlin WallInspired by their neighbors' reforms, East Germans took to the streets in the summer and fall of 1989 to call for reforms, including freedom to visit West Berlin and West Germany.Moscow's refusal to use military force led to the political reforms, leading up to the decision to open the border crossings on the night of: November 9, 1989. Ask me to play the YouTube clipGood Bye Lenin
CzechoslovakiaIn the wake of the collapse of the Berlin Wall, Czechs and Slovaks took to the streets to demand political reforms in Czechoslovakia.Leading the demonstrations in Prague was dissident playwright Vaclav HavelThe Communist Party of Czechoslovakia quietly and peacefully became a democracy in 1989Later dubbed the "Velvet Revolution."
RomaniaIn Romania, the Communist regime of hardliner Nicolae Ceausescu was overthrown by popular protest in December 1989. Execution shown on TVSoon, Bulgaria and Albania also ceded power.
German Reunification 1990Led by Helmut KohlIn little more than a year, East Germany - the German Democratic Republic (GDR) - disintegrated and its territory was absorbed into the FRG with no serious opposition and amid widespread public rejoicing, both at home and abroad Currency value issuesPaid for in 10 yearsE. Germans felt disrespectedW. German benefactor
Fall of U.S.S.R. 1991Revolution spread to the Soviet Union itself. After surviving a hard line coup attempt in 1991, Gorbachev was forced to cede power in Russia to Boris Yeltsin, who oversaw the dissolution of the Soviet Union. (C.I.S.)The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union marked the end of the cold war.
Stupid, yet funny cartoon
Next?Middle East 19th c to nowCurrent Event Tour of WorldInternational Organizations Music Video ProjectReview7 days???Regents Exam 6/19 at 8am GYM
Part II: European Union
European Economic Integration1967 HQ Brussels. European Parliament.Eurocrats.518 members [elected by all voters in Europe].Only limited legislative power.Court of Justice.
1991-92 Maastricht AgreementsEuropean Union [EU]One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!Create a common EU passport.One large common market.Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them. 2002 a common currency [Euro] not GB!2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.