The Cold War Beginning Tensions Beginning Tensions

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The Cold War Beginning Tensions Beginning Tensions Slide 2 Soviet Sphere of Influence Tensions escalated as the Soviet Union annexed countries such as Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania following WWII Tensions escalated as the Soviet Union annexed countries such as Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania following WWII Other countries became Soviet satellites, which means they were controlled militarily & economically by the USSR Other countries became Soviet satellites, which means they were controlled militarily & economically by the USSR Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & Albania The US feared the influence would move into the Mediterranean region next The US feared the influence would move into the Mediterranean region next Slide 3 Promoting Democracy The term iron curtain soon became symbolic of the political division between western & eastern Europe. The term iron curtain soon became symbolic of the political division between western & eastern Europe. In 1947, American diplomat George F. Kennan proposed a policy of containment. In 1947, American diplomat George F. Kennan proposed a policy of containment. Included both economic support & military aid to vulnerable countries as a way to prevent them from falling under Communist rule. Later that year, President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine, based on Kennans theory. It guided Americas foreign policy for the next 4 decades. Slide 4 Partition of Germany Slide 5 Marshall Plan To aid Europes recovery, in 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a massive relief plan. To aid Europes recovery, in 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a massive relief plan. The US provided European countries with funds needed to purchase supplies to rebuild their economies. Allowed Europe to rebuild itself Slide 6 Unification of West Germany June 1948, France, Great Britain, and the U.S. announced their plan to unify their occupation zones in western Germany, plus those of Berlin, the capital, located deep within Soviet-held eastern Germany. June 1948, France, Great Britain, and the U.S. announced their plan to unify their occupation zones in western Germany, plus those of Berlin, the capital, located deep within Soviet-held eastern Germany. Almost immediately following the USSR declaring East Germany communist, thousands of people fled to West Berlin hoping to make their way to freedom. Almost immediately following the USSR declaring East Germany communist, thousands of people fled to West Berlin hoping to make their way to freedom. Slide 7 Berlin Blockade In response to the unification of West Germany, Stalin sent troops to blockade the western border of Berlin, halting vital supplies to 2 million people. In response to the unification of West Germany, Stalin sent troops to blockade the western border of Berlin, halting vital supplies to 2 million people. In a countermove, British & American cargo planes began an all around-the-clock airlift of food, fuel, & other essentials to West Berlin. In a countermove, British & American cargo planes began an all around-the-clock airlift of food, fuel, & other essentials to West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift lasted until Stalin ended the blockade 10 months later. The Berlin Airlift lasted until Stalin ended the blockade 10 months later. Soon after, the country officially divided into West & East Germany. Soon after, the country officially divided into West & East Germany. Slide 8 NATO In1949, an alliance between the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France and many other countries created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In1949, an alliance between the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France and many other countries created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Members agreed to mutual military assistance if any member was attacked. Members agreed to mutual military assistance if any member was attacked. The Communist nations formed a similar alliance with the Warsaw Pact. The Communist nations formed a similar alliance with the Warsaw Pact. Slide 9 Nuclear Arms Race The fear of a nuclear attack was a direct result of the Cold War The fear of a nuclear attack was a direct result of the Cold War Soon after the USSR developed their own atomic bomb, the two superpowers embarked on an arms race that enormously increased both the number & the destructive power of weapons Soon after the USSR developed their own atomic bomb, the two superpowers embarked on an arms race that enormously increased both the number & the destructive power of weapons The development of the H-Bomb was a response to the Soviets a-bomb The development of the H-Bomb was a response to the Soviets a-bomb They estimated that such a bomb would have the force of 1 million tons of TNT (67 times the power of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima). Slide 10 Cuban Revolution Communism was spreading across the world, not only just to Asia & East Europe Cuba had its own Revolution from 1953-59. Communism was spreading across the world, not only just to Asia & East Europe Cuba had its own Revolution from 1953-59. Fidel Castro led a rebel army that sought to overthrow the corrupt government of Fulgencio Batista, Cubas self- proclaimed dictator. Fidel Castro led a rebel army that sought to overthrow the corrupt government of Fulgencio Batista, Cubas self- proclaimed dictator. Batista fled in 1959 & Cuba became a Communist country supported by the USSR, the first country in the Western hemisphere backed by the Soviets. Batista fled in 1959 & Cuba became a Communist country supported by the USSR, the first country in the Western hemisphere backed by the Soviets. Slide 11 Bay of Pigs In 1961, the US sponsored an invasion of Cuba by Cubans who had fled and were living in the U.S. In 1961, the US sponsored an invasion of Cuba by Cubans who had fled and were living in the U.S. This invasion was known as the Bay of Pigs it failed, and was an embarrassment for President John F. Kennedy. This invasion was known as the Bay of Pigs it failed, and was an embarrassment for President John F. Kennedy. Slide 12 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, the Soviets installed missiles in Cuba that could reach the United States. In 1962, the Soviets installed missiles in Cuba that could reach the United States. The U.S. launched a naval blockade of Cuba at the time, it appeared as though the two countries would go to war over the Soviet missiles. The U.S. launched a naval blockade of Cuba at the time, it appeared as though the two countries would go to war over the Soviet missiles. After an intense standoff, the Soviets removed the missiles & the U.S. Navy withdrew. After an intense standoff, the Soviets removed the missiles & the U.S. Navy withdrew. This was the closest the two countries ever came to making the cold war, hot. This was the closest the two countries ever came to making the cold war, hot. Slide 13 Practice Questions The policy of containment was introduced as Americas foreign policy with the The policy of containment was introduced as Americas foreign policy with the A) the Tet Offensive B) the Truman Doctrine C) the Berlin Airlift D) the Marshall Plan Slide 14 Practice Questions What prompted the Cuban Missile Crisis? What prompted the Cuban Missile Crisis? A) the Tet Offensive B) the Cuban Revolution C) the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba D) the interest in overthrowing Fidel Castro Slide 15 Practice Questions The Truman Doctrine stated that The Truman Doctrine stated that A) the US would not tolerate Communists in high levels of US government B) the US would not hesitate to intervene to help foreign nations resist communism C) the US would not cross the 38 th parallel during the Korean War D) the US would not support Maos revolution in China