The Cold War Chapter 29. I.Origins of the Cold War A. Soviet-American Tensions Soviet-American Tensions –WWII = a break in the hatred… long history of

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  • The Cold WarChapter 29

  • Origins of the Cold War A. Soviet-American Tensions

    Soviet-American TensionsWWII = a break in the hatred long history of mistrustReasons for American hostility towards USSRfundamental hatred towards communism Soviet regime first act was treaty that took them out of WWISoviet call for world revolution against capitalismStalin and the Great Purges

  • Soviet-American Tensions ContinuedReasons for Russian hostility towards USAFundamental hatred towards capitalism USA sent troops to fight against Bolsheviks during revolutionWest excluded Russia from policy after WWI WWII good for relations

  • Soviet-American Tensions Continued AgainWWII bad for relationsRussia United States Opposing visions of post war worldAtlantic Charter 1941One World model put forward by USA Russia (and Britain) had different ideas peacemaking process would become a form of warfare

  • Wartime DiplomacyUSA and Britain separate war plan from Russia: Morocco Jan 1943 Nov. 1943 Teheran, Iran: all three meetProblems Success

  • Yalta. from tension to amicability February 1945 all three meet in YaltaFDR in bad healthStalin power play AgreementsKurile Islands and other lost territory to Japan international organization United Nations

  • Yalta ContinuedUnresolved IssuesPoland: London vs Lublin Germany


    United Nations

  • II. The Souring of the PeaceA. The Failure of PostdamRoosevelt believed that Stalin could be reasoned with Truman did not in office two weeks before he announces that hes going to get tough on communism Limited leverage for Truman to stand on Conceded PolandTruman, Churchill/Altee and Stalin meet in Postdam

  • The China ProblemChiang Kai-shek head of nationalist government Mao Zedong, a communist revolutionary, rising in powerUSA sends military aid to Chiang Rather than send full military assistance to help the failing Nationalists, USA decided to assist in rebuilding JapanChiang Kai-shek

  • The Containment Doctrineshift from ideal of unified, open world to contain threat of communismGB announces it will no longer support democratic governments in Greece and TurkeyTruman Doctrine Caused Russia to withdrawal aid to communist forces in Turkey and GreeceResult would influence US foreign policy for the next 40 years

  • The Marshall Planintegral part of containment policy was economic reconstruction of Western Europe June 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall announced a plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery. Results *Fake Smile*

  • Mobilization at Home1947-48 series of measures designed to maintain American military power at near-wartime levels

    Atomic Energy Commission established in 1946 supervisory body charged with overseeing all nuclear researchNational Security Act 1947 expanded powers of the government to pursue international goals

  • The Road to NATOTruman agrees with England and France to merge the three western zones of Germany into a new West German republicMarshal Tito leads Yugoslavia into a separate communist state USA offers assistanceStalin responds by imposing a tight blockade around western sectors of Berlin

  • The Road to NATO ContinuedBerlin Airlift

    Spring of 1949 Stalin lifts now ineffective blockadeOctober 1949 official division between Germany (Communist East and Republic West) became official

  • The Road to NATO Continued AgainDivision in Germany accelerated the consolidation of what was already in effect an alliance among the United States and the countries of Western Europe.April 4, 1949 twelve nations signed an agreement establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    Spurred USSR to create its own alliance with all the communist governments of Eastern Europe: 1955 Warsaw Pact

  • The Open-Ended CrisisUSA believed to have the upper hand series of events change things

    NSC-68 a national security council report that USA must establish a firm and active leadership in a non communist world

  • III. American Politics and Society After the WarA. The Problems of Reconversionuse of atomic weapons in Japan ended war sooner than expected and it hurt the economyTruman was in a tough position to heal the economy quickly, against the advice of economic planners

  • The Problems of Reconversion ContinuedGI Bill of Rights Servicemens Readjustment ActInflationLabor Unrest

    8. Reconversion very heard for women and minorities who would lose jobs to make room for white males

  • The Fair Deal RejectedOutline of Plan

    Had Enough? Republicans win control of both houses of Congress in 1946

  • The Fair Deal Rejected ContinuedNew Congress quickly moves to do away with New Deal reforms Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 made illegal the closed shop. Places where people couldnt be hired without joining a union first

  • The Election of 1948 Truman and advisors believed that America was not ready to abandon New Deal

    Troubles for DemocratsSouthern Dems. Leave convention in response to Trumans proposed civil rights bill

    left wing leaves and forms Progressive Party and nominates Henry A. Wallace as presidential candidateDemocrats wanted to kick out Truman and have Eisenhower run for presidentTrumanTruman

  • The Election of 1948 ContinuedThomas E. Dewey, governor of New York, receives Republican nomination early favorite

    Truman turned fire away from him and towards Republican Congress Most dramatic upset in the history of presidential elections

    Thomas E. Dewey

  • The Fair Deal RevivedDemocrats in Senate more hostile to Fair Deal than Conservativesno national health insurance (hooray for Kaiser!)no increased spending in educationnot able to persuade Congress to accept the civil rights legislation which would have BUT Truman is able to achieve many reforms

  • IV. The Korean WarFair Deal plans would lose priority through a sudden change of events. June 24, 1950 the armies of communist North Korea swept across the border separating North and South Korea. South Korea was occupied by pro-Western forces. The USA would soon commit itself in its first battle of the Cold War.

  • The Divided PeninsulaBy 1945 both Russia and USA had sent troops to North Korea and neither wanted to leave instead they divided the country along the 38th parallelRussians depart in 1949, but leave behind a communist govt in North Korea with Soviet equipped armySyngman Rhee left in charge of South

  • InvasionNot clear if Russians pushed for invasion, but clear that they supported it once it beganJune 27, 1950 Truman ordered limited military assistance to South KoreaUN First physical expression of NSC-68

  • From Invasion to StalemateFor several weeks, things go smoothly China alarmed by movement of American forces towards its border

    By March UN forces able to reclaim much of the territory they had recently lost

  • From Invasion to Stalemate ContinuedStalemateTruman wanted to avoid war with China WWIIIGeneral MacArthur resisted limits on his military discretion

    Truman fires MacArthur on April 11, 1951

    Peace negotiations begin at Panmujom in July 1951 but negotiations and war would wage on until 1953

  • Limited MobilizationWartime controlRailroad workers walk off the job in 1951: Truman seizes the railroad to keep economy runningSteel strike 1952: Truman seizes the steel mills Good effects pumped new government funds into the economy at a point that many believed a recession was about to beginBad effects

  • V. The Crusade Against Subversion

    Reasons for Fearthe loss of China to communismKorean stalemateSoviet development of atomic bomb

  • HUAC and Alger Hiss

    Republicans search for an issue to attack the Democrats1947 Republicans win control of Congress and hold very public meetings to prove that the government had tolerated communist subversion name of organization: House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)HUAC first turned to Hollywood movie industry argued that communists had invaded Hollywood and tainted America with propaganda

    Alger Hiss Impact

  • The Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg CaseIn response to Republican attacks, and due to the fact that an election was approaching, the Truman administration initiated a widely publicized program to review the loyalty of federal employeesIn August 1950, president authorized sensitive agencies to fire people deemed bad security risks

    Amid crazed public fervor, a Democrat Congress tries to show itself as anti-communist

    Detonation of Nuclear Weapon in 1949 convinces America that military secrets had been passed to the Russians

  • Ethel and Julius Rosenburg convicted of espionage April 1951

    FEARnot only fear of communism, but fear of being suspected of communismgripped entire country The Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg Case ContinuedEthel and Julius Rosenburg

  • McCarthyism Joe McCarthy undistinguished first term Senator from Wisconsin 1950 I hold in my hand a list of 205 known communist currently working in the American State Department in the weeks that followed McCarthy repeated and expanded on his accusations and emerged as the nations most prominent leader in the anti-communist crusade.1952 McCarthy put in charge of special subcommittee and conducted highly publicized investigations of subversion

    McCarthy NEVER produced solid evidence that any federal employee had communist tiesgrowing contingency saw him as fearlessAccused Democrats of twenty years of treasonJoe McCa