The Cold War & Decolonization
The Ideological StruggleSoviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain]
US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy warsBi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]communist v. non-communist
The Iron CurtainFrom Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
The Iron CurtainThe iron curtain came to representEuropes division into mostly democratic W. Europe & Communist E. Europe.
Truman Doctrine Civil War in Greece.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.The U.S. should support countries that rejected communism.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan European Recovery Program.Secretary of State, George MarshallThe US should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)USSR held W. Berlin hostageLed to Berlin airlift (US & British flew in food & supplies)USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade
The Arms RaceThe Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: SpainLed to formation of
Warsaw Pact (1955)U. S. S. R.AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
Premier Nikita KhrushchevAbout the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956De-Stalinization Program
Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge!- Led to rivalry between 2 superpowers in science and education
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)CIA had been training anti-Castro exilesLanded at Bay of Pigs, no air support, defeated easilyUS humiliated
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)July 1962 Khrushchev began building 42 missile sites in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Sites discovered in October by USAJFK announced naval blockade of Cuba to prevent installation of more missilesPeople feared nuclear war for 13 days!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and they blinked!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if US promised not to invade Cuba
India Achieves Freedom(1920-1960sGandhiNehru
1920:Gandhi launches first nonviolent campaign for independence. See AKS 46e for more details.
1940:Muslim League proposes partition of India:Concern of Muslim League was that Congress Party would primarily protect Hindu interests
1947:India & Pakistan become independent:Problems Faced Prior to Independence:1. Movement of millions of ppl to new homes2. Division of courts, military, civil service3. Violence among religious groups
Problems in Kashmir*:*Territory in northern part of India ruler is Hindu, but region had majority Muslim population1. Fought over land2. U.N. arranged cease-fire placed 1/3 under Pakistani control & the rest under Indian control
Jawaharlal NehruContributions to Modernization & Democracy:Pushed for industrialization & social reformsTried to elevate status of lower castesTried to improve womens rights
Indpendence in GhanaTactics Used by Nkrumah:1. Organized strikes & boycottsNkrumahs Reforms:1. Developed industry2. Developed expensive health, welfare, & education programsProblems:1. Economic & political instability
The Korean War: A Police Action (1950-1953)Syngman RheeKim Il-SungDomino Theory
Background:1.Taken from Japan (1945)- Japan surrendered to USSR in north (Communist)- Japan surrendered to USA in south (democratic)2. Divided at 38th Parallel
Causes:Why did the UN send an international force to Korea?
- Because South Korea asked the UN to intervene when North Koreans crossed the 38th parallel and attacked
Outcome:July 1953 President Eisenhower signed cease-fire agreementWhat was the legacy of the war for North Korea and South Korea?Communist N. Korea became a military power but declined economicallyS. Korea industrialized & prospered economically with the help of US aid
French War in Vietnam
Background:Controlled by France (French Indochina) before WWIIJapan took control of it when France fell to Germany
Causes:Why did war break out between the Vietnamese Nationalists and the French?-After the Japanese lost WWII, nationalists wanted independence- France wanted to regain its colony
Outcomes:What was the outcome of the war for France and for Vietnam?- French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu & surrendered to Ho Chi Minh- An international peace conference divided Vietnam.
U.S. War in Vietnam
Causes:How did the US get involved in Vietnam?US feared the overthrow of the anti-Communist govt it helped set up in South VietnamUS escalated its military involvement as a result
Outcomes:Why did the US withdraw its troops from Vietnam?Unable to win a decisive victoryWithdrew troops in response to intense pressure at home (mostly due to protests against unfair draft practices)
Conflicts in the Middle EastThe Creation of Israel
Who were the Zionists?People who favored a Jewish national homeland in Palestine
Why did the Jews claim they had the rights to this land?Claims dated back 3,000 years, when Jewish kings ruled the region from Jerusalem
Why did the Arabs claim they had the rights to this land?The land had belonged to them since the Jews were driven out around A.D. 135.Why did the Palestinians claim they had the rights to this land?The land had belonged to them since their conquest of the area in the 7th century.
What did the UN General Assembly do in 1947?Voted for a partition of Palestine into a Palestinian State and a Jewish state.
Why did the UN General Assembly do this?The US & many other European nations had sympathy toward the Jews b/c of the Holocaust.
What about Jerusalem?It was to be an international city owned by neither side.
on May 14, 1948Israel is officially created
The Development ofThe Hydrogen Bomb
Who authorized the H-Bomb?President Harry S. Truman
When did he authorize it?1950
When did the US successfully test the first H-Bomb?1952
When did the USSR successfully test their version?1953
How much more powerful is the H-Bomb than the A-Bomb?Thousands of times
How is the H-Bomb different from the A-Bomb?Power came from fusing (joining together) of atoms rather than splitting of atoms (as with the A-Bomb)A-BombH-Bomb
Policy ShiftPolicy Under Eisenhower, Kennedy, & JohnsonBrinkmanshipPolicy where you are willing to go to the brink of warNuclear war seemed possible!
Policy ShiftPolicy Adopted by NixonDetentePolicy of lessening Cold War tensionsLed to SALT Treaties
SALT TreatiesStands ForStrategicArmsLimitationTalks
SALT TreatiesSALT IWho signed it?President Nixon (USA)Leonid Breshnev (USSR)
SALT TreatiesSALT IWhen?May 1972
SALT TreatiesSALT IWhat was the agreement?Limited the number of ICBM & submarine-launched missiles each country could have
SALT TreatiesSALT IIWho signed it?President Carter (USA)Leonid Breshnev (USSR)
SALT TreatiesSALT IIWhen?June 1979
SALT TreatiesSALT IIFailed - Why?Soviets invaded Afghanistan later in the year Congress refused to ratify it
Differing PoliciesUSSR under Khrushchev (1953-1964)Wanted to maintain a peaceful coexistence between socialism/communism & capitalismPeriods of peace, periods of crisisWanted to be friends with the West, but also wanted to show he was a firm defender of the Socialist camp
Differing PoliciesUSSR under Gorbachev (1985-1991)GLASTNOST (openness):- Churches opened, dissidents released from prison, freedom of speech grantedPERESTROIKA (economic restructuring):- Goal was not to throw out communism, but move more toward capitalism
China:Tiananmen SquareTank Man
China:Tiananmen SquareWho?Chinese Students
China:Tiananmen SquareWhat?Protest for Democracy
China:Tiananmen SquareWhat Happened?Deng declared martial law & ordered troops to su