The Cold War
Section One: The Cold War BeginsThe Cold War is a term used to describe the tensions between the United States and the USSR after WWII. Social, economic, and political differences were vastPeople feared a nuclear holocaust
Origins of the Cold WarThe cold war began with mistrust between the Soviet Union (red) and the western democracies (blue).
Roots of the Cold War
American and Soviet Systems DifferAllies Disagree on Future of Eastern EuropeTruman and Stalin Clash at Potsdam
American and Soviet Systems Differ
Capitalism vs. CommunismFree elections vs. DictatorshipReligious freedom vs. No ReligionPrivate Property vs. Communal government controlled propertyRespect for Individuals vs. Obedience to a leaderhttp://www.designer-daily.com/10-amazing-cold-war-propaganda-posters-2901
Allies Disagree on Future of Eastern Europe
US, France, and Great Britain wanted a united Germany and independent countries in Eastern EuropeUSSR wanted a weaker, divided Germany and wanted to control the formerly independent Eastern European countries.http://www.english-online.at/history/world-war-2/results-and-aftermath-of-world-war-ii.htm
Truman and Stalin Clash at Potsdam
Stalin refused to uphold his Yalta promise of free elections in Eastern EuropeTruman thought Stalin would implement expansionist policies echoing those of Hitler and Japan.http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photographs/view.php?id=13345&rr=Clement Atlee
Meeting the Soviet ChallengeTruman Faces a CrisisTruman Doctrine Opposes Communist Expansion
March 5, 1946 Churchill gave his famous iron curtain speech in Fulton, MOhttp://www.iancfriedman.com/?p=380
Truman Faces a Crisis
Trumans motto the buck stops here meant that he knew he had the responsibility for making the hardest decisions. Governments like Greece and Turkey were turning to the US to help fight communist forces within their countrieshttp://www.trumanlibrary.org/buckstop.htm
Truman Doctrine Opposes Communist Expansion
Truman went to Congress to ask for their support in helping Greece and Turkey fight communism.Congress gave its support and the USs agreement to help countries suppress communist movements became known as the Truman Doctrine.dipity.com
Containing Soviet ExpansionKennan Argues for ContainmentMarshall Plan Aids Europes Economieshttp://online-history.org/US2.htm
Kennan Argues for Containment
George F. Kennan published an article called The Sources of Soviet Conduct in a magazine called Foreign AffairsKennan argued that the US should focus onstopping the spread of communism instead of trying to get rid of it altogether
Marshall Plan Aids Europes Economies
People in Western and Eastern Europe were suffering after WWIIU.S. Secretary of State, George Marshall, proposed a plan to provide grants, loans, food, and fuel to ailing nationsStalin refused to allow Eastern European countries to accept the helpPlan stimulated American economy and gained support for fighting communismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan
Cold War Heats UpBerlin Airlift Saves West BerlinCold War Rivals Form Allianceshttp://www.artknowledgenews.com/Henry_Ries.htmlhttp://cla.calpoly.edu/~lcall/111/week_ten.html
Berlin Airlift Saves West Berlin
June 1948, Stalin blockaded West Berlin from western aidUS and Britain delivered supplies via airplane for almost a year dipity.com
Cold War Rivals Form Alliances
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in 1949 with 12 Western European and North American countries These countries agreed to mutual military assistance called collective securityIn 1955, the USSR and its satellite states formed the Warsaw Pact as a responsehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO
Section Two: The Korean WarThe Forgotten War
1950-53Sandwiched between WWII and the Vietnam War, the Korean War is often overlooked but had 140,000 American casualties.vacationideasguide.com
Communists Gain Control of ChinaCivil War Divides ChinaCommunists Win in Chinadipity.com
Civil War Divides China
Jiang Jieshi (AKA Chiang Kai-shek) led the Nationalists had US supportMao Zedong led the Communists had USSR supportThey joined forces to fight off Japanese invasion, but civil war started again after WWIICorrupt Nationalist leaders embezzled US aid dollarsMao won support by promising to feed the people
Communists Win in China
In 1948, Maos forces wonJiang fled to Taiwan, and asked America for more helpU.S. refused to send more money to this corrupt leaderChina becomes the Peoples Republic of China and officially a communist nation
The BeginningsIn WWII, Japan invaded Korea.To force Japans surrender, the U.S. occupied the South and the Soviets occupied the northern part of Korea. (above the 38th Parallel)Division was supposed to be temporary but different economies developed.South-Capitalist North- Communist
North Korea AttacksInitially, both sides refused to give up their ideologies.June 1950- The Soviets and Americans had withdrawn so North Korea attacked South Korea.http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/June/Truman-Orders-Troops-Into-Korea.html
Truman RespondsTruman said the U.S. would respond with military forceBECAUSE:1. He thought the Soviets were behind it.2. Needed to enforce containment policy. (Domino Theory)3. Standing down would be appeasement.
This Oct. 14, 1950, file picture shows Gen. Douglas MacArthur, left, and President Harry Truman in an automobile during a meeting on Wake Island to discuss the Korean War. Truman later told reporters the atomic bombing of North Korea was under consideration. MacArthur had a plan to drop 30 to 50 of the bombs, the general told journalists after the war. Sixty years after the start of the Korean War, recently released declassified documents have helped fill in the history of U.S. nuclear threats against North Korea over the decades. (AP Photo/WA, File)http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/oct/9/us-often-weighed-north-korea-nuke-option/
U.N. Policing ActionSince the U.S. had blocked the admission of Communist China into the U.N., Taiwan had Chinas veto power.In protest, the USSR walked out.Thus, the U.S. got unanimous approval for the defense of South Korea.16 Countries contributed but 80% of troops were American.
Douglas MacArthurMacArthur is appointed overall commander.By this point, North Korea had nearly taken all of South Korea.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_MacArthur
MacArthurs PlanHold ground at Pusan. Attack North Korean supply line at Inchon.MacArthur pushes deep into North Korea.
United States AdvanceMacArthur moved quickly despite tough conditions and rugged terrain.
China RespondsMacArthur ignores Chinas warning not to get too close to China.China enters war and pushes UN troops back to the 38th.MacArthur wants to use the A-Bomb and start a full scale war with ChinaTruman refuses, prefers limited war to achieve specific goalsMacArthur is fired after he publicly disagrees with the president.
Truman and MacArthur- Happier Times.
The Tough Conditions in the Korean War.
Korean War Has Lasting EffectsWar Becomes a Political IssueExamining the Lessons of the Korean Warhttp://www.zazzle.com/eisenhower_4_star_general_fade_poster-228654098000510658
War Becomes a Political Issue
Election of 1952, Eisenhower promised to end stalemate of Korean WarAfter he was elected, he visited KoreaWhen peace talks were failing, he suggested the nuclear optionStalin diedNorth Korea agreed to a cease-fire
Examining the Lessons of the Korean War
No victorTruman set precedent of sending US soldiers without a declaration of warIncrease in US military spendingSEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization is formed to prevent spread of communismhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/koreatxt.html
Section Three: The Cold War ExpandsAmerican backyard fallout shelter 1960
Arms Race Heightens TensionsCommunist Advances Shock the NationNuclear Arsenals ExpandThe Soviets were not far behind the US in developing the atomic bomb and accomplished it in 1949
Communist Advances Shock the Nation
September 2, 1949 An American military plane flying over Alaska detected high levels of radiationAmerican Nuclear Scientists studied the data and realized the Soviets had tested an atomic bomb.The news that the USSR had atomic weapons, and China falling to the communists had Americans freaking out.http://www.rferl.org/content/Sixty_Years_After_First_Soviet_Nuclear_Test_Legacy_Of_Misery_Lives_On/1809712.html
The U.S. gives advice to people on how to survive a nuclear attack. (shelters, etc.)Duck and Cover: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-5jw60
Nuclear Arsenals Expand
Truman orders the Atomic Energy Commission to produce a hydrogen bombOppenheimer and Einstein opposed this and warned of a perpetual arms raceBy 1952 the US tested a hydrogen bombThe Soviets tested one the following yearAbove ground testing led to nuclear fallout and radiation induced health problems for people downwind of the test sites
The Arms RaceOnce the Soviet Union successfully tested the atomic bomb, the arms race was on. Both countries stockpi