The Cold War The Cold War. The Cold War - Origins The Cold War - Origins Conflicting goals and ideologies linked to origin of Cold War U.S.S.R. - security

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  • The Cold War

  • The Cold War - OriginsConflicting goals and ideologies linked to origin of Cold WarU.S.S.R. - security a priority for Stalin, his regime, Soviet ideology and Soviet UnionStalin sought, by political means, to spread communist influence across Europepursued policies which assumed that the imperialist powers would compete with each other

  • U.S. goals - achieve victory in war; remove causes of war; build collective security through United Nations; reject isolationismRoosevelt assumed Soviet and western interests could be compatibleboth Churchill and Roosevelt hoped to maintain balance of power, but also embrace principleBritains goal - survive; strengthen Anglo/American alliance

  • the Soviet war effort was vital to the U.S. and Britain in their struggle against Nazi Germanyhatred of the Germans and a need to defeat Germany shaped the policy of the Grand AllianceCasablanca 1943 - demand for Germanys unconditional surrenderTeheran - agreement on the post-war dismantling of Germany; Polish/U.S.S.R/ border and Tito

  • October 1944 Churchills secret deal - % agreement on British/Soviet influence in eastern EuropeYalta - Feb. 1945Yalta became a synonym for western betrayal - Poland and other eastern European countries allowed to fall under Soviet dominationnothing new decided at Yalta; most important issue, the German question. not on the table

  • at Yalta the priority was to defeat Germany - no reason to antagonize Sovietsso, little protest at Soviet failure to assist Poles in August 1944 - Warsaw uprisingshape of post-war Europe dictated not by wartime deals and accords, but by the whereabouts of occupying armies when Germany surrenderedby end 1944 Soviets in northern Balkans; by May 1945 Soviets in Germany and Eastern Europe

  • at Yalta Stalin had gained acceptance from the U.S. and Britain for a Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europehowever, free elections would not be held in the countries now occupied by the Red Armyshortly before his death Roosevelt stated Stalin has broken every one of the promises he made at Yalta

  • with the defeat of Nazi Germany the Allied Powers divided Germany into four zones of occupation - American, Soviet, British and FrenchStalin hoped that all of Germany would come under communist control, but Soviet actions in Germany alienated the German populationhowever, the western Allies pursued a policy which would effectively protect western Germany from Soviet encroachments

  • American possession of the atomic bomb freed the U.S. from dependence on the Soviet Union in its struggle with JapanStalin realized how the bomb altered the power equation between the U.S. and the S.U., stating The balance has been destroyed ......That cannot be. and A-bomb blackmail is American policy. Trumans use of the bomb encouraged Stalin to adopt a harder line in negotiationsincreased mistrust and a growing sense of insecurity characterized relations at the close of WW II

  • having gained a Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europe Stalin attempted to secure territorial advantage in Iran and Turkey but Truman stood firm Stalin had to back down in March of 1946, an American diplomat in Moscow, George Kennan sent what would become his famous long telegram explaining Soviet political thinking and strategy

  • the long telegram became the basis for the United States strategy towards the Soviet Union throughout the rest of the Cold WarKennan claimed that Soviet foreign policy was shaped by the internal necessities of the Stalinist regime; outside world would always be regarded as hostileKennan advised that the U.S. should respond with a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.

  • March, 1947 Truman announced an aid package for Greece and Turkey. U.S. would now take over obligations previously carried by BritishTruman stated We must assist free peoples to work out their own destiniesJune, 1947 George C. Marshall announced the European Recovery Program ( Marshall Plan )Aims: to rebuild Europe and in doing so help block the possibility of a communist takeover

  • Stalin responded by rejecting offers of aid , either to the Soviet Union or to the satellite states of Eastern Europehe also enforced stricter control over the governments of Eastern Europe - in February, 1948 a communist government was imposed on CzechoslovakiaTito in Yugoslavia would remain the only communist leader independent of Moscow

  • 1948 - Berlin blockade - Stalin blocked access to West Berlin. Allied Berlin airlift, however, succeeded in bringing an end to the blockade by early 1949communist takeover in Czechoslovakia, together with the Berlin blockade convinced many Europeans of the need for U.S. military protectionNATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949

  • August, 1949 Soviets test first atomic bomb - changes military situation in EuropeTruman responded with a series of measures - U.S. forces would now be based in Western Europe, especially West Germany; the hydrogen bomb would be developed

  • October, 1949 the Peoples Republic of China is proclaimed. Maos communist forces had defeated the Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shekMao proclaims solidarity with the Soviet Union and international communismincreased fears within the U.S.Sino-Soviet Treaty signed between Stalin and Mao