Text of The Counter Reformation. Counter Reformation Actions taken by Catholic Church to counteract the...
The Counter Reformation
Counter Reformation Actions taken by Catholic Church to counteract the Protestant Reformation Counter-Reformation invented by German Protestant historians. Not liked by Catholic historians, but now generally accepted.
Ingredients of the Counter Reformation ReformationHumanism Secularism Religious Warfare New versions of the Bible VernacularScience Renewed religious emotionalism Baroque Art
Pope Paul III (1534 1539) The first Counter- Reformation pope The first Counter- Reformation pope Viewed the church as a fortress to be guarded, defended, and kept on the alert Viewed the church as a fortress to be guarded, defended, and kept on the alert
Council of Trent (1545 1563) Debated the legitimacy of Protestant theology. Most attendees were Italian bishops.
Council of Trent (1545- 1563) Defined Catholicism for the next 400 years All medieval church law was valid Latin would remain official language Re-emphasized the importance of good works and faith No change to sacraments No more money for indulgences Priests must be educated
Roman Inquisition What is an Inquisition? A tribunal designed to find heretics and bring them to justice How does it work? Accusation Anyone could testify against you No attorney No appeals Torture allowed
Inquisition Punishments Go to church Take a pilgrimage Wear a cross of infamy Imprisonment (if you confessed) Burned at the stake (if you didnt) What if you begged for mercy? Theyd strangle and then burn you What if you died before the trial ended? They dug up your body and burned you
Results of the Inquisitions? About 5,000 people burned Land and property of all heretics seized by Church Persecution of scientists Witch hunts
Scientists Copernicus Sun is center of universe Excommunicated (posthumously) Banned his books Bruno Believed in aliens and that Bible was not divine Burned at the stake
Galileo Warned by Church to stop Wrote books in Italian Scriptures teach us how to go to heaven, not how the heavens go. Threatened with torture Galileo backed down Galileo was acquitted in 1992
Roman Index of Prohibited Books Process of reviewing and censoring books Galileos books on list until 1835 All Protestant works Any Bible not in Latin Some books on the list until 1960s
Roman Missal A uniform liturgy for the Mass that would be used in every Catholic church throughout the world.
Jesuits New religious order devoted to teaching Catholicism Extremely militant, well-educated men focused on revival of Catholicism Loyola was their first leader
Jesuits and Education Jesuits established excellent schools across Europe Many famous Europeans educated by Jesuits Descartes Voltaire Even Protestants attended Ratio studiorum became the model for modern universities