The Development of the English Language Old English => Middle English => Modern English.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Development of the English Language Old English =&gt; Middle English =&gt; Modern English </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> See New Surfing the World pp 70-71 + Online Expansion http://online.scuola.zanichelli.it/news urfingtheworld/espansioni/http://online.scuola.zanichelli.it/news urfingtheworld/espansioni/ </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Old English a synthetic language with inflections and declensions Indo-European (ca 5000 BC) &gt; Proto Germanic West Germanic &gt; O.E: Core Germanic vocabulary : mann, wif, cold, hus, land etan, drincan + influences from Celtic =&gt;Avon Latin (Romans + Christianity) =&gt; -chester /-wick Old Norse =&gt;- by Old Saxon =&gt; ing (son of; - ham (homestead) tun (enclosure; - ford (crossing) bury (fortress) </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> OE PHONETICS : first condsonant shift IE *pater &gt; OE fder * dent &gt; to OE SYNTAX A synthetic language with inflections and declensions VERBS: past, presetn, infinitive weak and strong forms </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Languages used in Medieval England Anglo- Norman French: court, the legal system, scholars (until 13 century) Latin =&gt; church, scholars, liturgy (until 15 c. ) Middle English: common people (home/work), sermons gradually in all contexts by 16 c. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Middle English (1100-1450) ANALYTIC LANGUAGE: Loss of most inflections/declensions from synthetic to analytic lang. (eg definite article e for all cases) Preference for fixed word order and prepositions RELEXIFICATION Scandinavian (niman&gt; taka&gt; take) French ( fri &gt; pes &gt; peace) Latin (regal) STANDARDIZATION (The London Chancery standard) - educated classes - Used in institutions - Printing Press (William Caxon 1474) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Middle English literature The father of English literature: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales Written around 13861395 First puyblished sometime in the early fifteenth century Originally circulated in hand-copied manuscripts </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Narrative collection of poems A group of PILGRIMS leave the Tabard Inn in London to go to Canterbury to visit Thomas Beckets Shrine Characters from all walks of life: a lively picture of Medieval society (parody, satire). The Canterbury Tales </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Modern English pp 70-71 Since the Renaissance (Shakespeare = early modern English International travel and colonies: borrowings and great vocabulary expansion 1755. Samuel Johnsons Dictionary Use od auxiliaries do/does/did and of continuous forms (since 17th-18th century </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> English as a global language Reasons: leading role in politics, economics, science, technology, business Varieties: see Am. E p 160 Globish ? = highly simpilfied, unidiomatic, lingua franca Internationalisim vs identity: a challange for the future </li> </ul>

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