The Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530-1770

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    21-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • The Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530-1770
  • Slide 2
  • The Columbian Exchange
  • Slide 3
  • Demographic Changes Disease in New World Disease in New World Spanish/Portuguese/French/English Spanish/Portuguese/French/English Smallpox, measles, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever Smallpox, measles, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever Syphilis Syphilis
  • Slide 4
  • Transfer of Plants and Animals Agriculture Agriculture From Afro-Eurasia From Afro-Eurasia From America: led to ____ From America: led to ____ European livestock European livestock
  • Slide 5
  • Spanish America and Brazil
  • Slide 6
  • State and Church Council of the Indies Council of the Indies Communication breakdown Communication breakdown 1720 after mismanagement, Portuguese appoint a viceroy to Brasil. 1720 after mismanagement, Portuguese appoint a viceroy to Brasil. Spanish and Portuguese governments were highly costly, political, and experimental. Spanish and Portuguese governments were highly costly, political, and experimental.
  • Slide 7
  • Catholic influence in New World Catholic influence in New World Protection from exploitation Protection from exploitation Bartolome de Las Casas Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws of 1542 New Laws of 1542 Redirected focus on cities instead of Amerindians. Why? Redirected focus on cities instead of Amerindians. Why?
  • Slide 8
  • Colonial Economies Silver and sugar Silver and sugar Required large work force and resulted in environmental effects: Required large work force and resulted in environmental effects: Encomienda and mita system in Mexico and Peru. Encomienda and mita system in Mexico and Peru. Brazilian plantations first used _____ slaves then more productive ____ slaves. Brazilian plantations first used _____ slaves then more productive ____ slaves.
  • Slide 9
  • Society in Colonial Latin America Hierarchy Hierarchy Spanish born Spanish born Creole Creole Erosion of Amerindian groups Erosion of Amerindian groups Slaves and free blacks from Iberian peninsula played a role in colonization Slaves and free blacks from Iberian peninsula played a role in colonization Status dropped. Why? Status dropped. Why?
  • Slide 10
  • By 17 th century Africans and American born were the largest ethnic groups in Brasil. By 17 th century Africans and American born were the largest ethnic groups in Brasil. Some castas (mulatoes and mestizos) gained high status and wealth. Some castas (mulatoes and mestizos) gained high status and wealth.
  • Slide 11
  • English and French Colonies in North America
  • Slide 12
  • Early English Experiments Failed attempts to established colonies Failed attempts to established colonies Newfoundland (1583) Newfoundland (1583) Roanoke Island (1587) Roanoke Island (1587) 17 th century colonies were profitable investments, combined with successful colonization of ______ led to new interest in establishing colonies in New World. 17 th century colonies were profitable investments, combined with successful colonization of ______ led to new interest in establishing colonies in New World.
  • Slide 13
  • The South VA (Chesapeake Bay area) co. established Jamestown in 1606. VA (Chesapeake Bay area) co. established Jamestown in 1606. Tobacco Tobacco Indentured servants Indentured servants 950 slaves in 1660 to ______ in 1756. 950 slaves in 1660 to ______ in 1756.
  • Slide 14
  • Virginia was administered by a Crown appointed governor and House of Burgesses. Virginia was administered by a Crown appointed governor and House of Burgesses. Carolinas Carolinas Fur trade Fur trade Problems: Problems: South Carolina South Carolina Plantation economy (rice, indigo) Plantation economy (rice, indigo) Africans made majority of population Africans made majority of population Stono Rebellion 1739 Stono Rebellion 1739 Most hierarchal society Most hierarchal society Wealthy planter class Wealthy planter class
  • Slide 15
  • New England The Pilgrims The Pilgrims Church of England Church of England Plymouth Colony 1620 Plymouth Colony 1620 Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 Characteristics: Characteristics:
  • Slide 16
  • The Middle Atlantic Region New York New York Commercial and shipping Commercial and shipping Export grain to: Export grain to: Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Quakers to commercial (grain) Quakers to commercial (grain) Produced by free family farmers Produced by free family farmers Germans Germans
  • Slide 17
  • French America Like Spain and Portugal. How? Like Spain and Portugal. How? Depletion of animal population Depletion of animal population Result: Result: Firearms Firearms Amerindians: Amerindians: Indigenous resistance to Jesuits Indigenous resistance to Jesuits
  • Slide 18
  • Expansion South and West Expansion South and West Trading colony Louisiana 1699. Trading colony Louisiana 1699. French and Indian War French and Indian War Result: Result:
  • Slide 19
  • Colonial Expansion and Conflict
  • Slide 20
  • Imperial Reform in Spanish America and Brazil Bourbon dynasty of Spain 1713 Bourbon dynasty of Spain 1713 Administrative reforms in: Administrative reforms in: Intercolonial trade, commercial monopolies, Intercolonial trade, commercial monopolies, Navy, policing of contraband. The results:
  • Slide 21
  • Amerindian uprisings; Amerindian uprisings; Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui (Tupac Amaru II) Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui (Tupac Amaru II) Brasil Brasil Economic expansion fueled by: gold, diamonds, coffee, and cotton Economic expansion fueled by: gold, diamonds, coffee, and cotton Funded: Pombal reforms, Funded: Pombal reforms, importation of slaves, and British imports
  • Slide 22
  • Reform and Reorganization in British North America
  • Slide 23
  • Navigation Acts Navigation Acts No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships. No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships. All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least English or colonial. All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least English or colonial. The colonies could export certain product only to England. The colonies could export certain product only to England. Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port. Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port.
  • Slide 24
  • Response: Response: Overthrowing of governors in NY, Massachusetts, and Maryland Overthrowing of governors in NY, Massachusetts, and Maryland During the 18 th century economic growth led to increased urbanization and more stratified social structure. During the 18 th century economic growth led to increased urbanization and more stratified social structure.