The Dutch Republic:The Rise and Decline of a Golden Age, 1581-1715Why did the Dutch choose a republic?
Why a golden age?
To what extent was the Dutch Republic the most bourgeois of all of Europe?
The Dutch Republic and the Global Economy of the 17th CenturyWhat important innovations of the 17th century transformed the global economy?
To what extent did European consumerism shape shape global economy?
What is the connection between the global economy and the Dutch republics golden age?
The emergence of Dutch power: Anti Spanish & Anti Hapsburg resistance
1581: Dutch Constitution As it is apparent to all that a prince is constituted by God to be ruler of a people, to defend them from oppression and violence as the shepherd his sheepand when he does not behave, on the contrary, oppresses them, seeking opportunities to infringe their ancient customs and privileges, then he is no longer a prince but a tyrant, and the subjects are to consider him in no other view
Chronology: The Rise1609: Twelve Years Truce recognizes an independent Dutch state in northern provinces; founding of the Bank of Amsterdam1612: Manhattan Island settled as a Dutch colony; New Haarlem colony created1621: The Dutch West India Company is Created; Dutch prepare for war against Spain (30 Years War)
Chronology: The Height1652: Portuguese South Africa is turned over to the VOC; origin of Afrikaaners1640s-1660s: Series of Navigation Acts passed by British Parliament against the Dutch1670s: French government issues first mercantilist policies directed against the Dutch and English
Why a Golden Age?SOCIAL: religious tolerance,bourgeoisie dominatePOLITICAL: Mercantile oligarchy balanced by the House of Orange staatholder (military ruler); relative political freedomINTELLECTUAL: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment begin hereCULTURE: Dutch masters paintingECONOMICS: Financial & Shipping Power
Chronology: The Decline1688: The Glorious Revolution in England William of Orange (Dutch) and his Scottish wife, Mary, assume the royal crown of England.1670s 1710s: Series of commercial wars weaken the Dutch economy & govt1715: Treaty of Utrecht. British mercantile power eclipses the Dutch.
THE TULIP INDUSTRY
Vesalius: Modern AnatomyPublished Without Censorship
An Old JewRembrandt van Rijn
View of Delft, by Vermeer.
Study: Head of a NegroRembrandt van Rijn
The most bourgeois of all European countries, 17th century.
Dr. Tulps Anatomy Lesson by Rembrandt
The House of Orangebalances the government.William III of Orange
Science & EnligthenementLeeuewenhoek
Christian Huyghens (1629-1695)Dutch scientist who worked mainly in physics and mathematicsRefined the telescopeInvented clocks with pendulumsDeveloped the wave theory of light
Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645Father of modern international lawDeveloped the just war theory (only wars of defense are justifiable)Refined international maritime law
Baruch Spinozza,Philosopher, 1632-1677Portuguese Jew who fled to the NetherlandsRevived medieval Islamic tolerancegod is in everything, and there is one godFather of Modern religious tolerance
Balthazar BekkerWrote World Bewitched (1691) to demonstrate the unscientific basis of witch accusationsDelivered a decisive blow against superstitious beliefs among literate intellectuals
Emblem of The Dutch East India Company, the VOC (in Dutch)
Domination of the global economy
Using art as a primary source.Study your assigned painting and discuss the following:
-who might be in the painting-What is the setting-Who might be the audience-What is going on
Using your notes from the readings in Palmer and KGO on the Dutch Republic, imagine a spoken dialogue (or monologue) by the person(s) in your assigned painting. It must include references to at least THREE of the SPICE factors and contain some kind of a catchy hook.
3. Be prepared to present your dialogue to the class. Your written work will be collected and graded; bonus points for a high impact public performance.
Wars of commerce:Phase I: 1652-1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
Phase II: 1688-1715 Wars of Louis XIV
1688-1697 The Grand Alliance & The Nine Years War
1702-1714 The War of the Spanish Succession
1714 Treaties of Utrecht
Phase III: 1756-1763 Seven Years War
The Girl with the Pearl Earring by Vermeer