The Renaissance: Definition The Renaissance was a flowering of literary, artistic, and intellectual development that began in Italy in the 14 th century (1300s) and spread to England by the last two decades of the fifteenth century (1400s). The movement was inspired by the arts and scholarship of ancient Greece and Rome, which had been rediscovered during the Crusades.
<p>The English Renaissance (Early Modern Period) ( ) Of Men and Horses The Renaissance: Definition The Renaissance was a flowering of literary, artistic, and intellectual development that began in Italy in the 14 th century (1300s) and spread to England by the last two decades of the fifteenth century (1400s). The movement was inspired by the arts and scholarship of ancient Greece and Rome, which had been rediscovered during the Crusades. Key Characteristics New thoughts on religion Humanism The Reformation Stable/ capable monarchy Henry VIII Queen Elizabeth I The production and acquisition of knowledge Age of Exploration Movable Type New Thoughts on Religion: Humanism Humanism: The belief or practice resulting from the belief that mans experience on earth is at least as important as an afterlife. Religious devotion of the Middle Ages somewhat declined and gave way to new interest in/emphasis on human beings place on earth. Humanism was deeply involved with the study of the Classics (written in Greek and Latin) because they examine human experience from a secular angle. New Thoughts on Religion: The Reformation People were fed up with the corruption of the Catholic Church (remember the Pardonder?). Martin Luther, German Monk, nailed his famous ninety-five theses to the church door in Wittenberg in Humanist scholars were doing academic work that would seem to challenge Church authority. (A new translation of The New Testament by Desiderius Erasmus was published in 1522 and highlighted, negatively, the Churchs authority over interpretation of the Bible). Henry VIII wanted to get divorced. The Reformation Three main tenets of the Reformation: 1)Only the Scriptures (not the Church or tradition) have authority in matters of religion. 2)Only Gods grace and personal faith (not good works, religious practices, or commodities) can bring about salvation. 3)Only enlightened private conscience (not priests, ministers, or hierarchies) can determine what an individual must believe and do. Stable and Capable Monarchy (Mostly) Henry VII ( ) Kingship marked the end of the War of the Roses Helped modernize Englands economy by making provisions to expand cloth production Henry VIII ( ) Patron of the arts Formed a standing army (Feudalism had declined) Expanded the Navy Defender of the (Catholic) Faith Founder of a new religion: Church of England (Anglican) Stable and Capable Monarchy: Elizabeth I Perhaps no English monarch is more closely associated with the Renaissance than Elizabeth I. Elizabeth I Reigned from (45 years) Succeeded her sister, Mary I, Bloody Mary Established a secure Church of England but compromised with Catholicism and did not actively persecute Catholics Exercised good judgment in choosing government officials and advisors Chose not to marry to preserve the integrity of her judgment on matters of foreign and domestic policy (Virginia was named after her.) Supported exploration and economic expansion Supported the arts (esp. theater) Earned the devotionalmost worshipof her subjects and inspired strong nationalism Production/Acquisition of Knowledge: Age of Exploration Christopher Columbus (Italian) Americas, 1492 Vasco de Gama (Portuguese) Reached India by sea, sailing around the Cape of Good Hope ( ) John Cabot (British/British) Newfoundland, 1497 Sir Francis Drake (British) Sailed through the Strait of Magellan, pillaged Spanish towns on the Pacific, reached as far as San Francisco, crossed to the Philippines, and returned around the Cape of Good Hope Age of Exploration: Vasco de Gamas Voyage Age of Exploration Good outcomes Increased knowledge about the world Created great wealth for European countries (triangular trade, colonies) Created opportunity for commoners to make their fortunes and/or increase personal freedom outside of Britain Not-so-good outcomes British self-perception as culturally-racially superior to the rest of the world Colonization Ireland suppressed because of Catholicism British East India Company 1600 (not as large as Dutch East India Company  but definitely older) Triangular trade (slaves-raw materials-finished goods) Production/Acquisition of Knowledge: Movable Type Johannes Gutenberg (German) is credited with inventing movable type; his printing press was in operation by 1450; he printed a Bible in Englishman William Caxton introduced movable type to Britain (1476). Literacy increased during the fifteenth century, so that many more people could read than in Geoffrey Chaucers time. Estimates suggest that about 30 percent of the people could read English in the early 15 th century and about 60 percent by Printing obviously made books cheaper, more plentiful, providing more opportunity to read and more incentive to learn. Movable Type Movable Type: Effects Birth of race as we know it Travelogues were produced from various voyages abroad and made for cheap, interesting reading. By reading about people whose appearance and culture were dramatically different from their own, the average British citizen was able to form ideas about how Englishness (and being European) was different from other cultural identities. In fact, race came into the English language in connection with this historical development. Its first known usage in English was in the 16 th century (1500s). Movable Type: Effects Strengthened Protestantism King James I (who followed Elizabeth and was also a strong Renaissance monarch) commissioned the translation of a new Bible ( ) New Testament translated from Greek. Old Testament translated from Hebrew and Aramaic. Apocrypha translated from Greek and Latin. King Jamess Bible was only the third version in English; Henry VIII had commissioned the first translation in King Jamess version was able to be mass produced and widely read; it is still influential 404 years later.</p>