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The France of Louis XIV, 1643 to 1715: The Triumph of Absolutism Section 4.21

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  • The France of Louis XIV, 1643 to 1715: The Triumph of Absolutism Section 4.21
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  • Rise of Western Absolutism 1589159816041629164316491715 Henry IV Edict of Nantes Stuart Reign Begins Peace of Alais Sun Kings Reign Begins Fronde Treaty of Utrecht
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  • Absolutism Defined: Monarchy posses exclusive sovereign power over the State Sovereignty- a monopoly over the instruments of power Executive, Judicial, legislative Letat, cest moi (the state is myself)- Louis XIV Characteristics Rule by Divine Right of Kings the king is the earthly representative of God Bureaucracies utilized to enforce monarchs will Made up of Nobles of the Robe Nobility effectively brought under control Eastern Europe nobility became more powerful Large Standing Army Uniformed, disciplined, professional under monarchs control Royal power was absolute but not arbitrary Not Totalitarianism Lacked ability to enforce total regulation of art, culture, etc. Similar to totalitarianism in emphasis on being submissive to the State, use of armies and war to distract population More a legal principle than a fact in Europe
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  • Theory of Absolutism Jean Bodin (1530-1596) Wrote Les Six livres de la Rpublique during French civil wars of 1500s Believed only absolutism could bring stability to country Said that monarch can not be subject to outside force (nobility) But said monarch is subject to reason Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704) Created principle of divine right of kings King placed on throne by god Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Leviathan Pessimistic view of man in a state of nature Nasty, brutish, and short Everyone seeks power, gain Advocated an Enlightened Despotism Rejected divine right Purely secular reasons for absolutism
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  • French Civilization in the Seventeenth Century France 19 million people (1700) 3X England, 2X Spain 90% engage in agrarian economic life Good, fertile soil for agriculture Uneven distribution of wealth millions lived in poverty, large number were also wealthy more merchants in France than GB or Neth (but smaller proportion)
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  • The Development of Absolutism in France Estates General 1 st Estate- Clergy 2 nd Estate- Nobility 3 rd Estate- Everyone Else not met since 1615 Parlements (NOTE the spelling) 12 judicial bodies largely hereditary members, (noblesse de robe ) unlike the English Parliament not legislative bodies, Courts of law with each being the supreme court for a certain area Had duty to record royal edicts& laws wouldnt enforce royal edicts they deemed unconstitutional Parlement de Paris
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  • Henry IV Henry of Navarre (Bourbon) Laid foundation fro French absolutism Duke of Sully Henrys chief economic adviser Promised a chicken in every pot Paris is well worth a mass Edict of Nantes Lowered taxes Paulette Annual fee paid to retain hereditary rights Revived trade Granted trade monopolies Rebuild roads, canals
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  • Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Governments of Marie de Medici and her son Louis XIII (1610-1643) administered by Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal but really a politique who fortified absolutism and French cultural hegemony during the 1600- 1700s Continued Henry IVs policies of centralization Presided over royal council Intendants Used nobles of robe to collect taxes, etc. Advances mercantilism Encouraged nobility to develop interests in commerce without loss of title or status Encouraged merchants with grants of titles of nobility Developed commercial companies
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  • Peace of Alais Prohibits private warfare and orders the destruction of fortified castles not used by the king Peace of Alais (1629) amends the Edict of Nantes after Protestant uprising is put down Huguenots can not share political power, can not keep private armies Huguenots can practice Protestantism Path toward absolutism solidified Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.
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  • Salons develop by upper class women gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings Debate without restraint of an academy Contributed to the spread of French ideas French Civilization in the Seventeenth Century
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  • Salon Life
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  • The Fronde (1648-1653) A Rev led by the parlements and nobility Demanded the right to declare certain edicts unconstitutional Nobility called for Estates General Hoped to dominate the bourgeoisie and clergy Cardinal Mazarin
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  • if nobles won France would have been like Poland, Russia Frondeurs offered no systemic plan for reform; just a power grab After close call with the nobility the bourgeoisie stayed closer to the King and accepted absolutism The Fronde (1648-1653)
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  • Louis XIV takes the reins of power (1661) Marzarin died in 1661 (14 th is 18 years old) ability to see and stick to policy, extremely methodical, worked hard loved himself, flattery Lavish and opulent displays every inch and at every minute a King.
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  • Development of the state A sovereign state possesses a monopoly of justice and use of force not private persons or private armies (feudal) He claimed a monopoly over law and army Private persons neither pass legal judgments or control private armies
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  • Absolutism Letat, cest moi (the state is myself) Divine Right of Kings-the king is the earthly representative of God\ Theory developed by Bishop Bossuet the king is accountable to God and therefore will do what is right and conform to the higher authority of God Royal power was absolute but not arbitrary and must be reasonable and just like the will of God but free from dictation from parlements, estates More a legal principle than a fact in Europe Kings had to deal with advisers, bureaucrats, local customs, lawyers, ecclesiastics, nobles, grandees, hereditary officeholders, and miscellaneous dignitaries Slow passage of information required some element of local control
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  • Inherited bureaucracy (Richielieu) Intendants From Nobles of the Robe (not Sword) Administered 1 of 32 generalities Reported directly to king Never worked in home region Collected taxes, recruited soldiers, administered justice Army centralized All armed men only fought for him Put the artillery into the army Systematized the ranks and grades Defined the chain of command (Louis XIV at the top) Discipline and order become the rule of the day Housed troops in barracks Army could be used to suppress rebellion at home Size created new bureaucratic demands increased army from 100, 000 to 400, 000 Government and Administration
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  • The Splendor of VersaillesVersailles located about 10 miles from Paris monument to worldly splendor (Hall of Mirrors, gardens, chandeliers) Developed complex system of behaviors Lever, diner, coucher (rising, eating, going to bed) Six different entries of person at the lever (rising) Noblemen a specified moment held the right sleeve of the kings nightshirt Induced great nobles to live a Versailles
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  • Economic and Financial Policies: Colbert Ability of raise adequate mulla is chronicle problem Taxation Tradition of not taxing the nobles so only the unprivileged classes (peasants) paid taxes Louis didnt want to give up control to nobles (so he didnt tax them) Wealthy middle class also bought their way out of taxes (bought a title) Tax Farmer Collected taxes, paid government and kept the extra! Louis Le Nain (French, 1603-1648) Peasant Interior with an Old Flute Player c. 1642
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  • Where does Louis get money? Raise taxes (not effective) Devalued currency (inflation) Sold titles (limited number of candidates) Sold government offices (corruption) Sold military commissions (dangerous) Annul town charters and sell liberties back to the cities (dangerous) Economic and Financial Policies: Colbert
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  • Reforms by Colbert Mercantilist policies Expanded export of French goods and increased wealth from which government income could increase Especially in textiles Reduced internal tariffs Great Five Farms promoted free trade Commercial code (uniform laws of trade over local customs) Built Roads and canals Raised tariffs Imported NO foreign finished goods
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  • Required uniform standards of manufacture (Quality Control) More foreigners would trust buying French goods Subsidized development of certain manufactures Silk, glassware, tapestries, woolens Founded colonies French East India Company Supplying large army drove much manufacturing Result is government works to restrict nobility at the same time it is protecting privileges of nobility Reforms by Colbert
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  • Religion: The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685 Control over French Church Believed that religious unity necessary for strength of his rule Repressed Janenism (type of Calvinism in Catholic Church) Pressure to re-Catholicize Huguenots increased Dragooning (mounted infantrymen) were quartered in Huguenot homes In 1685 he revoked the Edict of Nantes Persecution of Huguenots drives them out of France Went to Holland, Germany and America Loss of Huguenots is social blow to France Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
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  • Reli

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