The French and Indian WarThe War That Made America
North America in 1750What potential Problem does theMap reveal?
Why was the OhioRiver valley inDispute by BritainAnd France?
The Region Today
New France: The 3rd Colony of the New WorldFrench claims dated back to 1608Samuel de Champlain, Father of New France, founds QuebecForms friendship w/ HuronMakes enemies w/ Iroquois
Characteristics of French settlement French settled along the interior Waterways of North America St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, Ohio River, Mississippi River Build forts & trading posts from New Orleans to Lake Michigan Control fur trade w/ tribes west of the Appalachian Mts. Never heavily populated
A History of WarFrance, Spain and Britain battle for the control of North America, sub plot will be religion 1690 King Williams War 1690Queen Annes WarPeace of Utrecht 1713 British gain Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay, British gains pinch French land holdingsWar of Jenkin's Ear 1739 naval war between France, Spain and Great Britain, Spain attacks colony of Georgia
Presentation of Jenkins Ear
Prelude to French and IndianWar1750s North AmericaThree leading powersBritishFrenchIroquois Confederation
British ViewpointEncourage settlement of western landsNothing can more effectively tend to defeat the dangerous designs of the French
French ViewpointFrench trace land claims back to early 1600s, based on fur tradeFrench to Native Americans on the British The British will rob you of your country
Native American viewpointWe dont know what you Christians, English and French together, intend. We are so hemmed in by both that we have hardly a hunting place left!
A ComparisonFrench60,000 peopleClaimed more landSingle governmentUsed professional soldiersHuron and Algonquin alliesBritish1.5 million peopleSeveral colonial governmentsUse colonial militiasFighting for homesIroquois Allies
The French and Indian War BeginsThe French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests. Some of these forts conflicted with English claims.Virginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young George Washington in 1753 to deliver a protest to the French. This protest was ignored. The British sent a party to construct a fort on the site of modern Pittsburg. Young George Washington
The Battle of Fort NecessityThe force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on the site. The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native American numbers. Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the French and Indian War. A recreation of Ft. Necessity.
Albany Plan of UnionBen Franklin Join or DieMeeting of representatives from 7 coloniesTwo goals: form an alliance with Iroquois and coordinate colonial defenseDelegate approve the planColonial legislatures reject planFranklin weak noodles
The Iroquois ally with the Britsh
Join or Die 1754 published by Ben FranklinIs considered by some to be the first political cartoon of the colonies.
9. That the assent of the President-General be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried into execution.
10. That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.
11. That they make such laws as they judge necessary for regulating all Indian trade.
15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of the Colonies
16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes [the President]he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed
[the President]shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur
[Congress will] regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes
[Congress will] raise and support ArmiesTo provide and maintain a Navy
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and ExcisesFrom the Albany Plan of Union (1754)From the Constitution (1787)
Quick TimelineEarly British strategy capture Frances interior forts 1755 defeated at Duquesne, Frontenac, Niagara, Ticonderoga and Crown PointDuquesne British General Edward Braddock killed, Washington leads the retreat1756 official declaration of war1757 King George turns war over to William Pitt sends more troops & spends more money
Fortunes ReverseIn 1757, expansion advocate William Pitt became the British Prime Minister and vowed to lead country to victory. Pitt concentrated on:expelling the French from North Americabuying the cooperation by the colonists by stimulating the North American economy with a massive infusion of British currencybuying the support of the Native Americans with promises of fixed territorial boundaries.
TimelineBritish change strategy, attack along the St. Lawrence1758 Jeffery Amherst takes Louisburg General John Forbes takes Duquesne1758 Montcalm wins at Ticonderoga1759 Amherst takes Ticonderoga, Quebec falls to the British, Wolfe & Montcalm both killed
Timeline1760 Montreal falls to British1763 Treaty of Paris French control of Canada is overBritain gains and France loses most of India, North America east of the Mississippi River, Spain cedes Florida to Britain, gains New Orleans and Louisiana Territory from FranceColonists emerge confident, battle tested, French threat removed and many Indians defeated
The Treaty of ParisThe French transferred its claims west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to the British.
Pontiac's Rebellion Native Americans quickly grew disenchanted with the British. The British exhibited little cultural sensitivity, traded unfairly, and failed to stop encroachments on Indian land.This unrest culminated in a rebellion by Pontiac, a Native American leader who united various tribes with the goal of expelling the British. The uprising lasted from 1763 to 1766.Massacres and atrocities occurred on both sides most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst gave the Native Americans blankets infested with smallpox.
Chief Pontiac: Address to Ottawa, Huron, and Pottawatomie Indians (May 5, 1763)
It is important that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last. When I go to see the English commander and say to him that some of our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as our French brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no use for us. Are we not men like them? What do we fear? It is time.
Proclamation of 1763Halted settlement west of the AppalachiansBritish wanted to negotiate peace with the Indians due to Pontiacs RebellionColonists wanted land
Proclamation of 1763Colonists resented restrictions Had fought for the landMoved into the area illegallyOpposition to British rule is heating up
The future of British ruleBen Franklin it is not merely improbable, it is impossible, I mean without the most grievous tyranny and oppression!What does Ben Franklin mean?