Text of The French Revolution Revolution= Change French Revolution= Change in France
The French Revolution Revolution= Change French Revolution= Change in France
Brief Overview Watch this short clip on the French Revolution that we will be covering over the next week. 2:00
Spreading Discontent As the ideals of the enlightenment spread, revolutions around the world began. In America, the colonists fought for and won their independence. They leaned on the ideas of Thomas Locke, Montesquieu and others to gain support. As Enlightened spread through France, the French people began to question the Old Order. After helping the United States of America become independent, the French began to demand change. Revolution= Change
France before the Revolution Before the Revolution France had three main problems: -An outdated Social System -Low Wages -High cost of living (and rising)
Anciene Regime (old regime) French society had 3 Estates: 1 st Estate 2 nd Estate 3 rd Estate 1 st Estate- Clergy.5% of the population 2nd Estate- Nobility 1.5% of the population 3 rd Estate- Clergy.98% of the population
1 st Estate- Clergy Before the Enlightenment the Church had been the most powerful force in Europe. It was rich, owned land and influenced politics. The Clergy did provide some social supports such as hospitals, food kitchens and schools. However, the Clergy continued to influence politics and refused to pay taxes.
2 nd Estate- Nobility The nobility held high ranking jobs in the government, military and church. They typically owned vast estates and were well off. Despite holding a majority of the wealth of the nation, they paid no taxes! While most nobles were well off, some hated Absolutism. They wanted more influence in the government, but their main concern was avoiding taxation.
3 rd Estate- The Masses The 3 rd estate made up 98% of the population and had a range of diverse groups: -Bourgeoisie- Middle class doctors, educators, merchants and lawyers. -Peasants- 9/10 people. Worked as laborers or farmers.
Social Unrest The 3 rd Estate resented the privileges of the upper classes. 3 rd pays the taxes at the mercy of the land owning nobles terrible wages. A minor increase in bread prices could result in starvation What is the 3 rd Estate? EVERYTHING What has it been in the political order up to now? NOTHING What is it asking for? To become SOMETHING
Can you identify each estate? What is the authors message?
Financial Crisis For years France was operating through deficit spending- spending more money than it takes in. Kings like Louis XVI live too extravagantly, hosting lavish gatherings at the Palace of Versailles France was also fighting Wars all over Europe.
Crisis worsens Deficit spending wasnt the only issue. A crop failure was causing food prices to soar. Most peasants earned meager wages. They could not afford good food for their family. They could not even hunt as a supplemental food source.
The boss: King Louis XVI King Louis XVI sat on the throne during this period. He was not really qualified to solve the financial crisis. The only real solution would have been to cut spending and raise taxes, and start taxing the 1 st and 2 nd estate. King Louis XVI decided to raise taxes on the 3 rd estate. This resulted in anger and looting. The King realized he could no longer handle the fiscal situation himself, his chief financial advisor, Jacques Necker suggests he calls the Estates General.
Who pays? If taxes are raised on the 3 rd Estate, who really pays? -Bourgeoisie- Middle class doctors, educators, merchants and lawyers. -Peasants- 9/10 people. Worked as laborers or farmers. The Bourgeoisie pay- the middle class. They become angry, and cause the Revolution. Therefore, the French Revolution is often called a Middle Class Revolution.
The Cahiers Reluctantly the king agrees to call the Estates General. But he sends out cahiers (notebooks) to representatives for each estate to write their grievances (complaints). Can you recognize each estate? After a girl has served her master for many years, she should receive some reward for her service. There needs to be a regular meeting of the Estates General to keep the King balanced. Why do my taxes matter? My brothers and I make up less an a percent of the nation. What good are taxes from us?
What is the Estates General? The Estates General is a meeting of representatives from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd Estates called by the King. The Kings rarely called the Estates General because they did not want to weaken their own power. Typically each estate has one vote. How does this disadvantage the 3 rd Estate?
National Assembly The 3 rd Estate was angry that they were not meeting with the other two estates. In response they created the National Assembly to represent the desires and needs of the people. Many nobles fed up with the king joined them. The national Assembly demanded that the King begin taxing the 1 st and 2 nd Estates to help balance the National Debt. The King feels threatened and locks the Assembly meeting hall. Can you identify the 3 estates?
Tennis Court Upon finding the doors locked on June 20 th, 1789, the delegates move to the tennis courts next door. Here they vow to keep meeting until they have a new constitution for France. 3:00
Review Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely.- Lord Acton Based on the quotation, what type of government would Lord Acton most likely support? 1.Dictatorship 2.Absolute monarchy 3.Totalitarian state 4.Representative democracy
Review John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be most likely to support 1) a return to feudalism in Europe 2) A government ruled by a divine monarchy 3) A society ruled by the Catholic Church 4) The rights of citizens to decide the best form of government
Review A primary cause of the French Revolution in 1789 was the 1)Increasing dissatisfaction of the Third Estate 2)Rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte 3)Actions of Prince Metternich 4)Execution of Louis XVI
Review The theory of laissez faire capitalism advocates 1)Government control of the economy 2)Noninvolvement of the government in the economy 3)Government regulation of big business 4)Government sponsorship of labor unions
Is it a Revolt? No sire, it is a Revolution!
Storming the Bastille As the National Assembly works on a constitution the King begins to assemble troops. Quickly rumors spread that the King will occupy the city of Paris. 800 Parisians gather at the Bastille, a fortress used to house prisoners (Voltaire was there several times). They demanded the guns and ammo they thought was there. The Bastille commander refused and fired on the crowd. The angry mob surged forward and took control of the Bastille, killing the commander and several officers. They released the prisoners, but found no weapons.
Impact The storming of the Bastille had a huge impact: -Symbolic start of the French Revolution -Seen as a step towards freedom -Blow to the tyrant king The Storming of the bastille is the symbolic start of the French Revolution, the same way the ________________________________ is the Symbolic start of the American Revolution The French still celebrate the storming of the Bastille on July 20 th, 1789. French July 20 th = American July 4 th Bastille Day= Independence day
A Nation Divided Though a revolution had begun, most people still liked the King. They had a desire to fix the system, but keep the King. The Revolution looked to Marquis de Lafayette as the leader for the revolutionary militia, the National Guard. Lafayette had fought in the American Revolution along with George Washington. He organized the militia in response to the Kings troops arriving in Paris.
Symbols of the Revolution The Revolution adopted the tricolor, a red, white and blue badge. This was later adopted as the flag of France. In addition to the tricolor, many revolutionaries wore red caps as a symbol of their support.
The National Assembly reacts The storming of the Bastille and news of peasant uprisings moved the National Assembly into action. The Nobles gave up their privileges: -old manorial dues -exclusive hunting rights -special legal status -exemption from taxation On August 4 th, 1789, the National Assembly passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Declaration of the Rights of Man Modeled after the American Declaration of Independence, the document announces that, All Men were born and remain free and equal in rights. They enjoy natural rights to liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. All French men are made equal before the law. It insists the government exists to protect the natural rights of citizens.
Louis XVI hesitates Uncertain about the reforms, King Louis XVI is slow to adopt the reforms. He continues to host extravagant and lavi