The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: ?· of nuclear power reactors in operation. ... emergency response and crisis ... Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant ...

  • Published on
    01-Feb-2018

  • View
    217

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>NEA</p><p>The Fukushima DaiichiNuclear Power Plant Accident</p><p>OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt</p><p>The Fukushima D</p><p>aiichi Nuclear P</p><p>ower P</p><p>lant Accident: O</p><p>ECD</p><p>/NEA</p><p> Nuclear Safety R</p><p>esponse and Lessons Learnt</p><p>2013</p></li><li><p>The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: </p><p>OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt </p><p> OECD 2013 NEA No. 7161 </p><p> NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY </p><p>ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT </p></li><li><p>ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT </p><p>The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 34 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies. </p><p>The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Commission takes part in the work of the OECD. </p><p>OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisations statistics gathering and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members. </p><p>NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY </p><p>The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) was established on 1 February 1958. Current NEA membership consists of 31 OECD member countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Commission also takes part in the work of the Agency. </p><p>The mission of the NEA is: </p><p> to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, as well as </p><p> to provide authoritative assessments and to forge common understandings on key issues, as input to government decisions on nuclear energy policy and to broader OECD policy analyses in areas such as energy and sustainable development. </p><p>Specific areas of competence of the NEA include the safety and regulation of nuclear activities, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, economic and technical analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear law and liability, and public information. </p><p>The NEA Data Bank provides nuclear data and computer program services for participating countries. In these and related tasks, the NEA works in close collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, with which it has a Co-operation Agreement, as well as with other international organisations in the nuclear field. </p><p>This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. </p><p>Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found online at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda. </p><p> OECD 2013 </p><p>You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of the OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.org. Requests for permission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at info@copyright.com or the Centre franais d'exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) contact@cfcopies.com. </p><p>Coverphotos:FukushimaDaiichinuclearpowerplant(TEPCO,Japan).</p></li><li><p>FOREWORDS </p><p>THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT, NEA No. 7161, OECD 2013 3 </p><p>Foreword from the NEA Director-General </p><p>On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst combined natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck its eastern coast and was followed by a tsunami which led to the loss of thousands of lives. These combined natural disasters were also at the origin of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident due to the prolonged loss of electric power supply and ultimate heat sink required for cooling. While the accident itself was not responsible for any casualties, it has affected the lives of tens of thousands of displaced Japanese citizens, resulted in very large economic costs and caused considerable environmental damage in the surrounding area. </p><p>As part of the NEAs activities to maintain and further develop the scientific, technological and legal bases for the safe use of nuclear energy, and as a contribution to the OECD mission to foster better policies for better lives, the Agency has worked closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions being taken at the national and international levels. Much has already been accomplished, and further studies and research will be carried out. </p><p>While for most this accident has not called into question the use of nuclear power as such, it has reminded us all that nuclear energy requires the highest standards of safety which need to be reviewed and improved on a regular basis, and that there can be absolutely no complacency in this regard. </p><p>The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident marks a turning point in terms of reviewing how nuclear safety is evaluated and ensured. It has triggered a closer examination of specific site locations and designs associated with those sites. It has also compelled nuclear safety experts to confirm that the principles upon which nuclear safety has been built remain valid, notably the defence-in-depth concept, but that more needs to be done to ensure their effective implementation in all countries and all circumstances. A strong safety culture, maintaining a questioning attitude and learning from one another will help us accomplish this together. The work of the NEA described in this report constitutes an important contribution to the safety of both todays and tomorrows nuclear reactors. </p><p> Luis E. Echvarri </p><p>NEA Director-General </p></li><li><p>FOREWORDS </p><p>4 THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT, NEA No. 7161, OECD 2013 </p><p>Foreword from the Chairman of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) </p><p>The NEA member countries, standing technical committees and secretariat took prompt action following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident to review the safety of nuclear power reactors in operation. In parallel, they also extended offers of direct assistance to the Japanese authorities to help them face the various challenges presented by the accident and the evacuation of the population in the surrounding areas. </p><p>The NEA actions taken in response to the accident are described in the pages that follow. They have primarily been led by the three NEA committees concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) but also involved the NEA as a whole. </p><p>The CNRA, in its capacity as the NEA regulatory committee, has ensured that member countries share their experiences and results from national safety reviews, decisions taken to improve safety and changes being considered to their regulatory frameworks. In addition, the committee established the means and procedures needed to achieve results consistent with the importance of the issues at hand. External events, accident management, emergency response and crisis communication, human and organisational factors, and robustness of plant safety systems are a few examples of the priorities set by the committee. </p><p>The NEA standing technical committees and secretariat played an essential role in bringing together the top regulators and experts to discuss issues of common interest in a collegial, open-minded approach in the NEA fora for international co-operation. The results of their efforts thus far in addressing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident are offered herein for the benefit of all interested parties and stakeholders. </p><p>The lessons learnt from the accident will continue to be identified and developed over the long term. To date, a considerable amount of work has been completed, but more remains to be done. To meet our objectives, a consistent international effort is necessary and the CNRA will continue to play a key role in ensuring the appropriate regulatory response to the accident. </p><p> Jean-Christophe Niel, CNRA Chairman </p><p>Director-General of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) </p></li><li><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT, NEA No. 7161, OECD 2013 5 </p><p>Table of contents </p><p>Executive summary ................................................................................................................ 7</p><p>Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 11</p><p>Immediate response by NEA member countries ............................................................... 15</p><p>Initiating events ......................................................................................................................... 16</p><p>Loss of safety functions ............................................................................................................ 18</p><p>Accident management .............................................................................................................. 23</p><p>Defence-in-depth ....................................................................................................................... 24</p><p>Emergency preparedness and planning ................................................................................. 27</p><p>Radiological protection ............................................................................................................. 28</p><p>Post-accident recovery and clean-up ...................................................................................... 29</p><p>Regulatory infrastructure ......................................................................................................... 30</p><p>NEA initial considerations and approach ........................................................................... 31</p><p>NEA actions in follow-up to the Fukushima Daiichi accident .......................................... 35</p><p>Nuclear regulation ..................................................................................................................... 35Accident management ........................................................................................................... 35Defence-in-depth (DiD) concept and implementation ............................................................ 36Review of precursor events ................................................................................................... 37Regulation of nuclear site selection ....................................................................................... 37Crisis communication ............................................................................................................ 37</p><p>Nuclear safety ............................................................................................................................. 38Human performance under extreme conditions .................................................................... 38Filtered containment venting ................................................................................................. 38Hydrogen management ......................................................................................................... 39Robustness of electrical systems ........................................................................................... 39Spent fuel pool accident conditions ........................................................................................ 40Risk analysis for natural external hazards ........................................................................... 40High seismic loads on metallic components .......................................................................... 40Software tools for the estimation of fission product releases ................................................ 41</p><p>Joint research projects .............................................................................................................. 42Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (BSAF) .. 43Hydrogen Mitigation Experiments for Reactor Safety (HYMERES) ....................................... 43PWR transient tests under postulated accident scenarios (PKL phase 3) ............................. 44Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS) .......................... 45</p></li><li><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>6 THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT, NEA No. 7161, OECD 2013 </p><p>New reactors ............................................................................................................................... 45</p><p>Radiological protection ............................................................................................................. 46Radiological protection aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident .............................. 46Nuclear emergencies ............................................................................................................. 47Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) ......................................................... 48Support for the ICRP dialogue initiative ................................................................................ 49</p><p>Legal framework and liabilities ............................................................................................... 49</p><p>Direct support to Japan by the NEA .................................................................................... 51</p><p>Key messages ......</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >