The Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist, Late Sunga Dynasty c. 300 BCE – 100 CE Stone masonry, sandstone on dome

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<ul><li><p>The Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist, Late Sunga Dynasty c. 300 BCE 100 CE Stone masonry, sandstone on dome</p></li><li><p>The Silk Road 300 BCE 100 CE</p></li><li><p>Jowo RinpocheEnshrined in the Jokhang Temple. Lhasa, Tibet. Yarlung Dynasty. Believed to have been brought to Tibet in 641 CE Gilt metal with semiprecious stones, pearls, and paint. Various offerings</p></li><li><p>Bamiyan Buddha, Afghanistan. Ghandharan. C. 400-800 CE Destroyed in 2001 by the Taliban</p></li><li><p>Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China. Tang Dynasty 493-1127 C.E</p></li><li><p>Todai-ji. Nara, Japan. Various artists, including sculptors Unkei and Keikei, as well as the Kei School. 743 C.E.; rebuilt c. 1700. Bronze and wood (sculpture); wood with ceramic-tile roofing</p></li><li><p>Lakshmana Temple. Khajuro, India. Hindu Chandella Dynasty c. 930-950 C.E. Sandstone</p></li><li><p>Shiva as Lord of Dance (Najaraja)Hindu. India, Chola Dynasty c. 11th Century Cast bronze</p></li><li><p>Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia </p></li><li><p>Churning of the Ocean of Milk(detail), Angkor Wat, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 1116-1150</p><p>`The Dream of Maya, Barhut c.100-80 BCE</p><p>Narrative Art: How do artists use images to tell stories? How do artists differentiate extraordinary events from ordinary events?</p><p>Text and Image, registers, continuous narrative, monoscenic (single scene), synoptic (jumbled), use of perspective,</p><p>*Mayas Dream, Birth of the Buddha c.100-80 BCE</p><p>Synoptic narrative</p><p>Aniconic representation of Buddha: Buddha as a cloth (scene 3) and in scene 4 as a cloth and with little footprints where Maya takes Buddha to a Yaksha for his blessing. </p><p>Iconic representations appeared in the 1st C CE</p><p>The king being told of his sons futureMayas dreamMaya giving birth holding a tree like a yakshi (a female nature spirit associated with trees &amp; fertility), Buddha as a clothMaya takes buddha to a Yaksha for his blessing. Buddha as cloth, with little footprints</p><p>A lack of individuality can actually make the story more accessible. The stylized is preferred over the naturalistic*Bud- Siddhartha leaving the palace, relief, BMFA*Buddhist, Buddha at Moment of Enlightenment, Meditating Under Bodhi Tree, Gandharan, 100s Freer *Buddhist, B in Earth-Touching Pose*Buddhist, Buddha's 1st Sermon, Turning of the Wheel, FreerStupa at Sanchi </p><p>Sacred Space: How do artists shape beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors of people? How do artists differentiate extraordinary places from ordinary places? The architect for a sacred space has to answer several questions:1. Is there communal ritual? If yes, how is that going to affect the design of the space? Size and structural support2. Does the Ritual involve the participants moving around within the structure? If yes, then what does the arch. have to make sure the space provides? Is there a clearly defined ritual pathway?3. Does the ritual require that the participants be able to see a focal point? How does this affect the structural support?4. How can transitions from ordinary, secular space into increasingly sacred space be facilitated? Light - the transition from light to dark as you transition from profane to sacred. Size - The more sacred a space is the smaller it is and the fewer people are allowed in.5. How can the structure and its ornamentation be a visual representation of the religious beliefs of the participants?</p><p>Function of the stupa: A Symbol of the BuddhaCommemoration: A site for relics a burial mound. The stupa itself is classified as a relicWorship: Pradakshina=circumambulation. Stupas are worshipped by walking around them clockwise. The right shoulder (the auspicious side) always closest to stupa. Cosmological Diagram: The stupas dome is heaven. It encompassed a world and floats on the cosmic oceanRepresents the creation of the Universe (an Indra myth)The yashti is a pole (Indras pole) which anchors the earch to the cosmic ocean.At Sanchi a wooden yashti was found with blue tiles at the bottom base (representing water)*Bud- Sanchi north gate illustrating Jataka tales, 1c BCE (Ions 96)*Buddhist, Standing Buddha, Gandharan, broken halo; Buddhist, Gandharan Standing Buddha, 1-2c CE; Buddhist, Gandharan Standing Buddha, 2-3c CE 7ft6in*Buddhist, Gandharan Standing Buddha; Buddhist, Greek High Classical, Polykleitos, Doryphorus, ~450 BCE; Roman, A Roman Patrician w Busts of His Ancestors, late 1st c BCE, marble, lifesizeTheBuddhas of Bamiyanwere two 6th-century monumental statues of standingbuddhacarved into the side of a cliff in theBamiyanvalley in the Hazarajatregion of centralAfghanistan Built in 507 AD (smaller) and 554 AD (larger),the statues represented the classic blended style ofGandhara art. The main bodies were hewn directly from thesandstonecliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated withstucco. This coating, practically all of which wore away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands, and folds of the robes; the larger one was paintedcarminered and the smaller one was painted multiple colors. </p><p>The lower parts of the statues' arms were constructed from the same mud-straw mix while supported on wooden armatures. It is believed that the upper parts of their faces were made from great wooden masks or casts. Rows of holes that can be seen in photographs were spaces that held wooden pegs that stabilized the outer stucco.Bamiyan lies on theSilk road, which runs through the Hindu Kush mountain region, in the Bamiyan Valley. The Silk Road has been historically a caravan route linking the markets of China with those of the Western world. It was the site of severalBuddhist monasteries, and a thriving center for religion, philosophy, and art. Monks at the monasteries lived ashermitsin small caves carved into the side of the Bamiyan cliffs. Most of these monks embellished their caves with religious statuary and elaborate, brightly coloredfrescoes. It was a Buddhist religious site from the 2nd century up to the time of theIslamicinvasion in the later half of the 7th century. Until it was completely conquered by theMuslimSaffaridsin the 9th century, Bamiyan shared the culture ofGandhara.</p><p>The two most prominent statues were the giant standing BuddhasVairocanaandSakyamuni, identified by the differentmudrasperformed. The Buddha popularly called "Solsol" measures 53 meters tall, and "Shahmama" 35 metersthe niches in which the figures stand are 58 and 38 meters from bottom to top. Before being blown up in 2001 they were the largest examples of standing Buddha carvings in the world</p><p>*Restoration</p><p>The UNESCO Expert Working Group on Afghan cultural projects convened to discuss what to do about the two statues between 34 March 2011 inParis. Researcher Erwin Emmerling ofTechnical University Munichannounced he believed it would be possible to restore the smaller statue using anorganicsiliconcompound. The Paris conference issued a list of 39 recommendations for the safeguarding of the Bamiyan site. These included leaving the larger Western niche empty as a monument to the destruction of the Buddhas, a feasibility study into the rebuilding of the Eastern Buddha, and the construction of a central museum and several smaller site museums. Work has since begun on restoring the Buddhas using the process ofanastylosis, where original elements are combined with modern material. It is estimated that roughly half the pieces of the Buddhas can be put back together according to Bert Praxenthaler, a German art historian and sculptor involved in the restoration. The restoration of the caves and Buddhas has also involved training and employing local people as stone carvers. The project, which also aims to encourage tourism to the area, is being organised by UNESCO and theInternational Council on Monuments and Sites(ICOMOS).The work has come under some criticism. It is felt by some, such as human rights activist Abdullah Hamadi, that the empty niches should be left as monuments to the fanaticism of the Taliban, whileNPRreported that others believe the money could be better spent on housing and electricity for the region.Some people, including Habiba Sarabi, the provincial governor, believe that rebuilding the Buddhas would increase tourism which would aid the surrounding communities. </p><p>Rise of Buddhas with 3D light projection</p><p>After fourteen years, on 7 June 2015, Chinese artists Xinyu Zhang and Hong Liang filled the empty cavities where the Buddhas once stood with 3D laser light projection technology. The projector used for the installation, worth approximately $120,000, was donated by the Chinese couple, Yu and Hu, who were saddened by the destruction of the statues. With the desire of paying tribute, they requested permission fromUNESCO and theAfghan governmentto do the project. About 150 local people came out to see the unveiling of the holographic statues on Sunday, 7 June 2015 </p><p>*Longmen Caves</p><p>Worship and power struggles, enlightenment and suicidethe 2300 caves and niches filled with Buddhist art atLongmen in China has witnessed it all. Thesteep limestone cliffs extend for almost a mile and contain approximately 110,000 Buddhist stone statues, 60 stupas (hemispherical structures containing Buddhist relics) and 2,800 inscriptions carved on steles (vertical stone markers).</p><p>Buddhism, born in India, was transmitted to China intermittently and haphazardly. Starting as early as the 1st century C.E., Buddhism brought to China new images, texts, ideas aboutlife and death, and new opportunities to assert authority. The Longmen cave-temple complex, located on both sides of the Yi River (south of the ancient capital of Luoyang), is an excellent site for understanding how rulers wielded this foreign religion to affirm assimilation and superiority.Most of the carvings at the Longmen site date between the end of the 5th century andthe middle of the8th centurythe periods of theNorthern Wei (486534 C.E.) through early Tang dynasties(618907 C.E.).The Northern Wei was the most enduring and powerful of the northern Chinese dynasties that ruled before the reunification of China under the Sui and Tang dynasties.</p><p>The Wei dynasty was founded by Tuoba tribesmen (nomads from the frontiers of northern China) whowere considered to be barbaric foreigners by the Han Chinese. Northern Wei Emperor Xiao Wen decided to move the capital south to Luoyang in 494 C.E., a region considered the cradle of Chinese civilization. Many of the Tuoba elite opposed the move and disapproved of Xiao Wens eager adoption of Chinese culture. Even his own son disapproved and was forced to end his own life. At first, Emperor Xiao Wen and rich citizens focusedon building the citys administrative and court quartersonly later did they shift their energies and wealth into the construction of monasteries and temples. With all the efforts expended on the city, the court barely managed to complete one cave temple at Longmen</p><p>*Fengxian TempleThis imposing group of nine monumental images carved into the hard, gray limestone of Fengxian Temple at Longmen is a spectacular display of innovative style and iconography. Sponsoredby the Emperor Gaozong and his wife, the future Empress Wu, the high relief sculptures are widely spaced in a semi-circle.The central Vairocana Buddha (more than 55 feet high including its pedestal) is flanked on either side by a bodhisattva, aheavenly king, and a thunderbolt holder(vajrapani).Vairocana represents the primordial Buddha who generates and presides over all the Buddhas of the infinite universes that form Buddhist cosmology. Thisideaof thepower of one supreme deity over all the othersresonated in the vast Tang Empire which was dominated by the Emperor at its summit and supported by his subordinate officials. These monumental sculptures intentionally mirrored the political situation. The dignity and imposing presence of Buddha and the sumptuous appearance of his attendant bodhisattvas is significant in this context.The Buddha, monks and bodhisattvas (above) display new softer and rounder modeling and serene facial expressions. In contrast, the heavenly guardians and the vajrapani are more engaging and animated. Notice the realistic musculature of the heavenly guardians and the forceful poses of the vajrapani (below).</p><p>**Nio guardian statues**India and sacred geography: A river culture where "Everything is a manifestation of the divine"</p><p>The Ganges River came from Shivas hair to cleasnse the earth. Water is sacred, a bridge between two worlds. Running water is auspicious.</p><p>Mountains are divine Temples represent maountains</p><p>Trees are sacred to circumnavigate them is an act of worship</p><p>According to traditional Indian culture the Indian subcontinent undergoes six seasons, with the approximate duration of each being two months. These are as follows: spring, summer, monsoons, early autumn, late autumn &amp; winter. But according to the modern climatic studies India has only three predominant seasons they are summer season, rainy season and winter season.</p><p>The Vedas of the Aryan culture became the basis for much of Hinduism and Buddhism. which led to the Upanishads, outlining Karma, the idea of rebirth and the seeking to end rebirth, and the idea that Brahman (god, the universe 'out there') = Atman (the human soul)</p><p>Brahman (Hinduism) - the eternal, infinite, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe (genderless)Brahma (Hinduism) - the god of creation who is thought to be the father of all human beings. Rarely depicted in art forms or worshipped. Some theorize he is a human depiction of Brahman and to depict him will bring bad luck.Brahmins (Hinduism) - Hindu priestsBrahma (Buddhism) - "Great One" an inhabitant of the non-brahman sensual heavens of form or formlessness.The brahman (Buddhism) - (brahmin) caste of India has long maintained that its members, by their birth, are worthy of the highest respect. Buddhism borrowed the term brahman to apply to those who have attained the goal, to show that respect is earned not by birth, race, or caste, but by spiritual attainmentIn the Hindu temple, large niches in the three exterior walls of the sanctum house sculpted images that portray various aspects of the deity enshrined within. The sanctum image expresses the essence of the deity. For instance, the niches of a temple dedicated to Vishnu may portray his incarnations; those of a temple to Shiva, his various combative feats; and those of a temple to the Great Goddess, her battles with various demons. Regional variations exist, too; in the eastern state of Orissa, for example, the niches of a temple to Shiva customarily contain images of his family his consort, Parvati, and their sons, Ganesha, the god of overcoming obstacles, and warlike Skanda. </p><p>The exterior of the halls and porch are also covered with figural sculpture. A series of niches highlight events from the mythology of the enshrined deity, and frequently a place is set aside for a variety of other gods. In addition, temple walls feature re...</p></li></ul>