The Influence of Romanian Folk Music on the Music of George Enescu

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iThe Influence of Romanian Folk Music on the Music of George Enescu, with special reference to Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, and Impression d’Enfance for Violin and Piano, op. 28.Michael David PattersonA thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Music Performance) at The University of Queensland in September 2009 The School of Musicii Declaration by authorThis thesis is composed of my original work, and contains no material p

Text of The Influence of Romanian Folk Music on the Music of George Enescu

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The Influence of Romanian Folk Music on the Music of George Enescu, with special reference to Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, and Impression dEnfance for Violin and Piano, op. 28.Michael David Patterson

A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Music Performance) at The University of Queensland in September 2009 The School of Music

ii Declaration by author

This thesis is composed of my original work, and contains no material previously published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the text. I have clearly stated the contribution by others to jointly-authored works that I have included in my thesis.

I have clearly stated the contribution of others to my thesis as a whole, including statistical assistance, survey design, data analysis, significant technical procedures, professional editorial advice, and any other original research work used or reported in my thesis. The content of my thesis is the result of work I have carried out since the commencement of my research higher degree candidature and does not include a substantial part of work that has been submitted to qualify for the award of any other degree or diploma in any university or other tertiary institution. I have clearly stated which parts of my thesis, if any, have been submitted to qualify for another award.

I acknowledge that an electronic copy of my thesis must be lodged with the University Library and, subject to the General Award Rules of The University of Queensland, immediately made available for research and study in accordance with the Copyright Act 1968.

I acknowledge that copyright of all material contained in my thesis resides with the copyright holder(s) of that material.

Statement of Contributions to Jointly Authored Works Contained in the Thesis No jointly-authored works.

Statement of Contributions by Others to the Thesis as a Whole No contributions by others.

Statement of Parts of the Thesis Submitted to Qualify for the Award of Another Degree None.

iii Published Works by the Author Incorporated into the Thesis None.

Additional Published Works by the Author Relevant to the Thesis but not Forming Part of it None.

iv Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the support of my academic advisor, Dr. Denis Collins and my practical advisor, Mr. Spiros Rantos.

Abstract George Enescu (1881-1955) is the best-known Romanian composer and has been widely lauded for his folk- inspired compositions. While folk music was an important influence in Enescus music, it was always balanced by his passion for and intimate understanding of late Romantic compositional techniques. The extent to which he was influenced by the folk music of his homeland is a point of contention amongst some of the leading Enescu scholars. The English-speaking representative, Noel Malcolm believes that the influences in Enescus musical language were more diverse than scholars have suggested prior to the 1989 revolution. He believes that the depiction of Enescu as a folkloristic composer has contributed to his marginalisation and relative obscurity. By contrast, scholars such as Boris Kotlyarov and Grigore Constantinescu give greater weight to national characteristics in Enescus music. Enescu conceded that some of his early works made direct quotation of Romanian folk melodies, and that such an approach was limited in its possibilities. The composers more mature works employ characteristics of folk music and its performance traditions without the use of direct quotation.

This critical commentary will observe and comment on the folk influences in Enescus compositions as well as noting the influence of Western traditions and techniques. Due reference will be given to the work of Bartk, whose incisive study of Romanian folk music remains one of the most substantial and detailed primary sources today. In order to highlight specific examples of folk influence, as well as other techniques, three of Enescus works are targeted for specific study, namely the Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3 and his Impressions DEnfance for violin and piano, op. 28. Each work exhibits a tie with the composers Romanian origins, but also with 19th and early 20thC composers such as Brahms, Wagner, Debussy and Faur. This critical commentary highlights the fact that Enescus works display folk idioms and techniques developed using lateRomantic techniques.

v Keywords Enescu, folk, music, compositions, Romania, Romanian, composer, traditional, Bartk

Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classifications (ANZSRC) 190407 30%, 190409 70%

vi CONTENTS

Page DECLARATION AND PRELIMINARY INFORMATION ABSTRACT CONTENTS LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES CHAPTERS 1 Introduction 2 Biographical Background 3 Enescu, Bartk and Approaches to Folk Music 4 Characteristics of Romanian Folk Music 5 Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1 6 Impression dEnfance for Violin and Piano, op. 28 7 Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no.3 8 Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 6 11 16 27 31 38 47 51 ii iv vi vii

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LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLESPage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Bihor area modal type. Heroic melody modal type. Modal type for melodies with motif-structure. Cmpie area modal type. The Hicaz mode. Hexasyllabic arrangement. Octosyllabic arrangement. Bla, Mure county. 1914, transc. B Bartk Rhythmic shift through displacement of the accent. The uncertain mode. A doina, Cintec Lung Cu Haulit from the Oltenia area (Alexandru 166). An instrumental dance melody from the Hunedoara area (Bartk 409). Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, bars 1-4. Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, bars 9-12. Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, bars 30-37. Enescu, Impressions denfance, op. 28, bars 1-2. Underlying rhythm of Mntriers opening melody. The second phrase of Mntrier. Enescu, Impressions denfance, op. 28, bars 6-8. Enescu, Impressions denfance, op. 28, bars 34-36. Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, bars 355-358. Dorian mode with raised fourth degree. 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 23 26

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viii 23 Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, third movement, bars 21-22. Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, first movement, bars 1-5 Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, first Movement, bars 6-9. Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, first movement, second subject, bars 32-37 (with anacrusis). Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, start of the development section, bars 38-41. Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, first movement, bars 63-64. Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, second movement, bars 20-21. Enescu, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3, third movement, bars 20-21. 39

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1 Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

In this critical commentary I will examine how George Enescu drew upon the folk music heritage of Romania in the development of his musical language. This discussion will be balanced with consideration of the composers formal music education in Vienna and Paris and the reflection of this training in his compositional output. Enescu is the best known and most celebrated Romanian composer to date (Malcolm, George Enescu). The fact that he was influenced by folk music is generally agreed upon, but the extent of this influence is a point of contention, as may be seen in the monographs of Boris Kotlyarov and Noel Malcolm. Their respective books, Enesco1 and George Enescu: His Life and Music are the most substantial scholarly publications about Enescu in English (Waterhouse 118). Kotlyarov seems willing to attribute most of the composers distinctive compositional features to a folk music influence, while Malcolm is more sceptical, acknowledging folk influence but presenting the composer as more cosmopolitan. Their contrasting views will be balanced in this critical commentary, with due consideration of Enescus biographical information and examination of some of his more representative works. Three specific works will be targeted for more detailed discussion, namely the Romanian Rhapsody, op. 11 no. 1, Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 25 no. 3 and Impressions DEnfance for violin and piano, op. 28. Each work exhibits a tie with Enescus Romanian origins, but also with his education in Vienna and Paris and the influence of composers such as Brahms, Wagner, Debussy and Faur.

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Translation from Russian to English by the Author.

2 Enescu was a dyed-in-the-wool Wagnerian (Malcolm, Life and Music 75) living at a time when composers were seeking alternative paths to the advanced harmonic idioms developed by late nineteenth century composers. Exoticism, serialism, barbarism, neoclassicism, folklorism, nationalism and dadaism were but a few of the many trends explored by composers of this time (Vancea 6). Enescu, while patriotic and loyal to his homeland of Romania was not, like Bartk, driven to compose for the good of the nation (Suchoff 133). Nor did he conduct any detailed study or documentation of the music of the Romanian people in order to imbue his compositions with its spirit. And yet Enescu is hailed to this day as the greatest single exponent of Romanian music, and as a folklorist whose music portrays the character of the Romanian landscape (Malcolm, Enescu in Bucharest 31)2. However, Noel Malcolm has noted the lack of study on the influence of church music on Enescus output (Malcolm, Enescu in Bucharest 31). On both sides of the composers family there were strong ties with th