The Mechanism of Breathing Air rushing in Intercostal muscles & diaphragm muscles Intercostal muscles & diaphragm muscles Chest Volume Rib Cage Diaphragm

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  • The Mechanism of Breathing

  • Air rushing inIntercostal muscles &diaphragm musclesChest VolumeRib CageDiaphragmResults inAir pressure in lungsContractRelaxMove upwards & outwardsMove downwards & inwardsFlattenedDome-shapedIncreasesDecreasesLower thanatmosphereHigher thanatmosphereAir rushing outThe Mechanism of Ventilation

  • Diseases & Disorders of Respiratory SystemChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)InfectionsSleep Apnea (Irregular breathing during sleep)Dyspnea (shortness of breath)Bradypnea (abnormally low breathing rate < 12/min)Tachypnea (abnormally fast breathing rate > 20/min)Pleural EffusionsGenetic disordersCystic Fibrosis (CF)Lung cancer

  • COPDAsthmabronchospasms, parosysmal, productive cough, mucolytics, bronchodilatorsChronic Bronchitismucosal swelling, productive cough, chest painexpectorants, bronchodilators, steroidsEmphysema (Degenerative disease)barrel-chest, dyspnea, orthopnea

  • InfectionsInfluenza (flu)Acute infectious respiratory diseaseVirusFever, chills, headache, myalgia, anorexiaAvoid aspirin in childrenCommon ColdMilder symptoms of fluPneumoniaAcute infectious respiratory diseaseBacteriaCough with sputum production, fever, and sharp chest pain

  • Pleural EffusionsExcess fluid in pleural cavityassociated with congestive heart failure, ascites, infectious lung diseases, traumadiagnosisauscultation, percussionEmpyema, hydrothorax, hemothorax, pnrumothorax, pyopneumothoraxthoracentesis

  • TuberculosisInfectious, highly communicable diseaseaerosol transmissionprimary tuberculosis, tuberclesimmunocompromisedeffects other organ systemsdrug resistant strains

  • BronchopneumoniaInflammatory disease of lungslobar, bilateralhemoptyisisconsolidationPneumocystis carinii lavage

  • Cystic FibrosisHereditary disorder, affects exocrine glandssystemic involvementlungs, pancreas, digestive tractViscous mucus blocks bronchiolesGas exchange impaired

  • Respiratory Distress SyndromeSurfactantdecreases the surface tension of the alveolineeded for alveoli to fill with air and expand (compliance)Infant respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease)Adult respiratory distress syndrome

  • OncologyPrimary Pulmonary CancerSmoking is leading cause of ALL TYPES OF LUNG CANCERScommon site: epithelium of bronchibronchogenic carcinomamasses form and block air passagesmetastasizes frequently to lymph noes, liver, bones, brain, or kidney

  • Interaction of respiratory and other systems

    Loading of oxygen (and carbon dioxide) requiresblood transport and specilaized functionsof red blood cells

    Utilization and regulation of voluntary muscles

    Sensitivity to pH (acidosis, alkalosis)

    Response to exercise?

    Response to high altitude?



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