The Middle English Period

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The Middle English Period


Name: Putu Denny Mahardika (1301305089)The Middle English PeriodMiddle English was the dominant and traditional spoken language form in many parts of England during the Middle Ages. This period can be divided into 3 phases, The Early Middle English, Middle English, and Late Middle English. a. [1066-1204] The Early Middle English (Decline of English)French (Norman) invasion (1066), William, Duke of Normandy's conquest and unification of England, crowned king of England as William I, the Conqueror. Normans were descendants of Danes living in northern France and spoke French influenced by Scandinavian. French became the dominant language in England, spoken by the upper classes from 1066 until late in the 14th century. English language was relegated to the lower classes and was heavily influenced by French in matters of vocabulary, prosody, and spelling.b. [1204-1348] Middle English (Rise of English)King John (John Lackland) loss of Normandy in 1204; beginnings of the political and cultural separation between England and France. Many Norman landholders chose to stay in England, spoke Anglo-French dialect.c. [1348-1509] Late Middle English (Dominance of English)English became official language of legal proceedings; everyone in England spoke English by end of 14th Century, displacing French, Norse, and Celtic languages.Characteristic of Literary works in this period written did not change radically until the effects of the Renaissance and Reformed Christianity became more apparent in the reign of King Henry VIII. There are two main categories of Middle English Literature: Religious and courtly love.There are some of the most prominent writer in this period: Bacon, Roger(1214-1294) English philosopher and scientist. Bacon is one of the most prominent figures in 13th century scholastic philosophy. He carried out much experimental research on all branches of knowledge accessible at the time including grammar and logic along with mathematics and moral philosophy. Caxton, William(1422-1491) a merchant and later a writer who set up the first printing press in England in 1476. Caxton himself prepared some translations of works in Latin and French. Chaucer, Geoffrey(c.1340-1400) the major poet of England in the late Middle Ages and the most significant writer before Shakespeare. Coverdale, Miles(c. 1488-1569) [religious writing] One of the main translators of the Bible in the 16th century.