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The Politics The Politics of War of War

The Politics of War. Foreign Nations in War US blockade could have caused backlash from European Nations Europe instead recognized the Confederates as

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  • The Politics of War

  • Foreign Nations in War

    US blockade could have caused backlash from European NationsEurope instead recognized the Confederates as the Belligerents so essentially did not question blockadeInitially hurt European marketsEventually, Britain no longer dependent on Southern Cotton BUT now Dependent on Northern wheat and cornDistracted with other problemsFrance MexicoDenmark and Poland

  • Britain in the Civil War

    The Trent IncidentSouthern Delegates met on British ship to convince Britain to join their sideNorth stopped the ship and arrested the 2 menBritain threatened war wanted US to apologizeLincoln freed the men and said Captain was unauthorized in his actions, did not apologize thoughBritain was Happy to not go to war, as was Lincoln

  • Britain in the Civil WarBritain did not officially recognize the Confederacy

    Did sell Ships to the South

    The Alabama Sunk or captured 64 Union ships

    After the war, the US handed a bill of $19 million to Britain, they ignored, later forced to pay $15.5 million in damages.

  • Habeas CorpusBaltimore crowd attacked Union regiment, a week after Fort Sumter

    Lincoln sent fed troops

    Suspended habeas corpus in MDCourt order that requires authorities to bring a person held in jail before court to determine why he or she is being jailed.Strategy used to hold dissenters in jail

  • Effects of Suspension of Habeas CorpusSuspended in other states

    Seized telegraphs to make sure no one used wires for subversion

    President ignored chief of justice ruling that he went beyond presidential powers

    Copperhead Northern democrats who advocated peace.Congressman Clement Vallandigham tried in a military court for urging Union soldiers to dissent

    Lincoln showed dramatic expansion of presidential powers.

  • Lincolns GeneralsIrwin McDowellWinfield ScottGeorge McClellanAmbrose BurnsideJoseph HookerGeorge MeadeHenry W. HalleckUlysses S. Grant

  • McClellan: I Can Do It All!

  • War in the East: 1861-1862

  • Battle of Antietam Bloodiest Single Day of the War23,000 casualtiesSeptember 17, 1862

  • ConscriptionHeavy casualties and widespread desertions made volunteer army dwindle

    Both sides called for a draft, but allowed men to:

  • The North Initiates the Draft, 1863

  • Buy Your Way Out of Military Service

  • ConscriptionHeavy casualties and widespread desertions made volunteer army dwindle

    Both sides called for a draft, but allowed menPay fee to avoid draftHire a Substitute

  • Recruiting Irish Immigrants in NYC

  • Recruiting Blacks in NYC

  • NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)

  • NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)

  • Draft RiotsNorthern resentment to the draft led to riots.

    It was unfair for poor white workers to fight for emancipationSlaves would become free, move North, and take jobs.Attacked well-dressed men and women, especially African Americans.

    11 African Americans are lynched, homes are smashed, burned a black orphanage.

  • ConscriptionHeavy casualties and widespread desertions made volunteer army dwindle

    Both sides called for a draft, but allowed men to pay fee to avoid draft or provide a substitute

    About 92% of 2 million were still volunteers

    Led to riots, one in NYCWrecked draft officesAttacked well dressed menLynched 11 African AmericansBurned black orphanage

  • Leading up to EmancipationLaws leading upFirst Confiscation Act of 1861 confiscation of any Confederate property, including SlavesForbade Union Army officers from returning fugitive slaves March 1862Compensate slave owners who freed their slaves April 1862

    Battle of Antietam Sept 1862 gave Lincoln support

    Released emancipation on September 22, 1862 that stated it would go in effect Jan 1, 1863

  • WHY EmancipationLincolns goal was to preserve the union, not abolition.Felt didnt have constitutional power

    South used slaves to build fortifications and grow food

    Lincoln can order troops to seize enemy resources, why couldnt slaves be included in that?

    Strategic Purposes:Discourage Britain from supporting the ConfederacyHurt Southern War Efforts

  • Emancipation in 1863

  • The Emancipation Proclamation

  • The Southern View of Emancipation

  • Effects of EmancipationOnly applied to non-captured CONFEDERATE states (not loyal slave states)

    Southern ResponseConfederates were furious and more determined to fightCompromise was no longer possible.

    Negative Northern Response, felt it would:1) prolong war by antagonizing the South2) did not care to fight for African Americans

    Positive North ResponsesGave moral purpose to the NorthFree Blacks happy to join Union army nowFormer slaves fought

  • African-American Recruiting Poster

  • The Famous 54th Massachusetts

  • August Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert Gould Shaw

  • African-Americans in Civil War Battles

  • Black Troops Freeing Slaves

  • Extensive Legislation Passed Without the South in Congress1861 Morrill Tariff Act1862 Homestead Act1862 Legal Tender Act1862 Morrill Land Grant Act1862 Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863)1863 Pacific Railway Act1863 National Bank Act

  • Morrill Tariff Act -1861High protective tariff that increased duties 5%-10%.

    Increases were designed to raise additional revenue & provide more protection for the prosperous manufacturers.

    EFFECT: Protective tariffs became identified with the Republican Party, Upset foreign nations

  • Homestead Act -1861FINALLY Passed in 1862

    Promised ownership of a 160-acre tract of public land to a citizen who had resided on & cultivated the land for 5 years

  • Legal Tender Act -1862Authorized use of paper notes to pay the government's bills.

    Ended the long-standing policy of using only gold or silver in transactions

    Allowed the government to finance the enormously costly war long after its gold and silver reserves were depleted.

    Greenbacks

  • Morrill Land Grant Act -1862Transformed higher educationWas responsible for the establishment of numerous colleges across the country.

    Under the terms of MLGA:the federal government distributed land proportionately to the statesThe proceeds of the land sales supported collegesSome states used the money from the sale of land to aid existing schools, and other states used the money to establish new colleges and universities

  • Pacific Railway Act -1863Authorized the construction of the first transcontinental railway line connecting the east and west coasts.

    Provided that after each railroad laid forty miles of track, it was to receive: 6,400 acres of public landsgovernment loans ranging from $16,000 to $48,000 per mile of track completed.

  • National Bank Act -1863Authorized the National Banking System.

    Designed to stimulate the sale of government bonds and to establish a standard bank-note currency.

    Banks who joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds and issue sound paper money backed by the bonds.

    *Confederate cruiser claimed 65 prizes valued at nearly $6,000,000 (approximately $123,000,000 in today's dollars