The Protestant Reformation. Pope Oberholtzer The Ultimate Authority K-212. The Protestant Reformation. The 16 th century Protestant Reformation was a logical outgrowth of the humanism, intellectualism and empowerment of the individual that came out of the Renaissance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Protestant ReformationPope OberholtzerThe Ultimate AuthorityK-2121The Protestant ReformationThe 16th century Protestant Reformation was a logical outgrowth of the humanism, intellectualism and empowerment of the individual that came out of the RenaissanceChurch corruption, arrogance of power by Popes and inconsistent teachings created a firestorm of anger at the church that turned the population of Europe against the institution that dominated the prior Middle Ages.There was also a desire for a more perfect communion with God, a more perfect spirituality that would help heal Europeans after the wars, famines and plagues of the calamitous 14th and 15th centuries.New technologies, particularly the invention of the moveable type printing press enlarged the scope of literacy and spread new ideas to more people than ever before. The call for change came not only from the intellectuals, but from the people themselves.Humanism was the intellectual schema that provided the framework for the eventual split in Christanity and the reformation movements that resulted from the schism in the faith
2Reformation RevolutionRevolution in Religious Thought & PracticeChallenged established authority & secured triumph of secular power Shaped identities & changed map of EuropeContributed to centuries of violent conflictContributed to ascendancy of individualismLed to development of modern democracy!
3Catholic Church in DistressPapal conflict with kingswho is superior? Popes claim the right to crown kings.Great Schism: Avignon & Rome are rival papal capitals for 70 years. Disorder in the church.Church Practices:Indulgencessale of forgiveness of sins.Simonysale of church officesLandholdingchurch largest landowner & biggest landlord; ruinous rents!Fees & taxes crush the people!Corruption was rampant!
4Calls for ReformJohn Wycliffe (1320-1384) English theologian attacked the interference in temporal affairsPopes, Bishops & Cardinals too worldly; should live like Christ! Clergy were living like royalty!John Huss (1369-1415) Czech theologian who demanded that the church confine itself to spiritual matters. Echoed Wycliffe in criticism of church.Both men claimed the Bible as the sole authority for Christians as the word of God, using vernacular language in worship services so people could understand the proceedings. Wycliffe in particular denied the validity of transubstantiationThe followers of Wycliffe and Huss continued to cause problems for the Church and the number of Europeans questioning and challenging the Church continued to grow.
5Desiderius ErasmusErasmus (1466-1536) was a Christian Humanist who tried to blend the faith and humanist values. Erasmus taught that superstition was bad and that reasoned enlightenment should prevail along with the tenets of Christian faith.Salvation is based on deeds of love and imitating Christ.Wrote the book In Praise of Folly criticizing the church and church officials for not understanding the true purpose of Christian life, the imitation of the example of Christ.Erasmus called for reform, but not a split with the church.Erasmus was one of the great Christian Humanists of the period and the Father of Northern European Christian Humanism.
6Martin Luther (1483-1546)Martin Luther (1483-1546) was the Father of the Protestant Reformation.well educated, originally in law, later in scriptural theology at University of Wittenburg.Luther sought security and a clear path in life. He turned to the priesthood after a near death experience in an electrical storm. He became obsessed with salvation and how to attain it.became a monk in an Augustinian order and eventually became a professor of scriptural theology in 1512 at the University of WittenbergLuther was bothered by church practices that diminished its moral authority (indulgences, simony, political and civil interference, corruption). The Church should model Christ!
7Ideas of Martin LutherStudied letters of Paul to discover the source of salvationSalvation between God and man is through faith only; there is no need for an intermediary like the churchNo need for formal church and sacramentsBelievers can pray directly to God and have a personal relationship with GodThe Bible, as the word of God, is the ultimate authority, not the church!Only God can forgive sins: indulgences are immoral, illegal and improper!Pope is not infallible, nor are clergy morally superior to lay people. The Church is to serve man, not man to serve the church!Faith is the key to salvation and the religious life! You are saved through your faith alone!
8The Events leading to SplitJohannes Tetzel was a monk who sold indulgences that were used to build St. Peters Cathedral in RomeTetzel used fear and pressure to frighten people into buying the release of their loved ones from purgatory. Tetzel came to Wittenburg and came into contact with Luther. Luther was disgusted by his tactics and motivated to act in order to stop it.
995 ThesesResults in Split!October 31, 1517- Luther posted his 95 Theses to the door of the church at Wittenberg containing his differences with the Catholic Churchissued a call for debate, not a split; Luther wanted to reform the church, not destroy it!expressed the need for reform of church practicesattacked the sale of indulgences directlyattacked simony, corruption and worldliness of the churchLuthers words are translated from Latin to German and spread throughout Europe; creates a firestorm of protest against the Church
10Results of Luthers ProtestDiet of Worms (1521) was a religious council assemblage that found Luther to be teaching contrary and heretical ideasPope Leo X demanded Luther recant 41 of his 95 theses ouotright. The call for dialogue was rejected!Edict of Worms (1521) Luther is declared an outlaw and heretic by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Luther could be killed by anyone without legal penalty. Luther was under the protection of Frederick the Elector of Saxony.Peace of Augsberg (1555), an agreement that allowed the German states to decide who they wanted to followProtestantism dominates Northern Europe with help from German nobility and the printing pressLutheran church is founded, the first protestant denominationLuther is excommunicated!
11Martin Luthers AchievementsMartin Luther and his calls for reform ultimately split the Christian church, a split which has lasted until today.Luther did not support the Peasants Revolt (1524-25) and supported the nobles against them. He was not a revolutionary, nor did he favor social unrest.Luther wrote hymns and devotional pieces, many of which were published.Luther translated the Bible into German.Luther also espoused anti-Semitic views that form the intellectual basis for modern anti-Semitism.Luther helped to transform Europe and changed the course of human history: secularism and democracy flourished!
12Martin Luthers Achievements 2Luther taught Clergy were not superior to lay peopleLuther Denied existence of purgatoryReduced 7 sacraments to 2: baptism and communionCalled for the closure of monasteriesBible is the sole authority, not the pope, church or religious dogma.A personal relationship with God is possible; empowers the individual and emasculates the church!
13Martin Luthers Movement is a Political as well as Religious Movement!There was no united Germany. There were hundreds of small German states. Local German Princes were autonomous. They backed Luther in order to free themselves from obligations to Rome and the Catholic Church, to assert their own autonomy!Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, protected Luther and became one of the early supporters of Lutheranism.Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, wanted to keep his lands Catholic. He faced considerable problems:Turks invading to the eastRivalry with the King of France, Francis IOngoing argument with the PopeReligious wars lasting 20 yearsPeace of Augsberg (1555) allowed the German states to choose who they would follow. Northern German (and northern Europe) went Protestant. Southern Germany (and southern Europe) remained Catholic, a split that has endured to the present.
14Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) The Zwinglian ReformationUlrich Zwingli was an influential priest in ZurichEnacted in Swiss city of ZurichAll idols, paintings, decorations were removedScripture reading, prayer and sermon replaced the Roman Ritual (Catholic Mass)Relics and images were abolished and forbidden.Death of Ulrich Zwingli (1531)War broke out between Catholic and Protestant states in Switzerland.Zwingli was wounded, executed by his enemies and his body was rendered and burned.Leadership of Protestantism in Switzerland went to John CalvinJohn Calvin will have a major impact on the evolution of Protestantism.
15Religious Wars: Split in Christianity!
16John Calvin (1509-1564)Predestination--all humanity is too sinful to be worthy, yet God saves a select few while damning the rest. People who are saved are called The Elect of God.Purpose in life was to honor God, not to seek salvation for self! Work hard, pray and be devout.Salvation comes from God alone. Honoring God by living a virtuous life. That means work, religious devotion and seriousness of purpose. No gambling, prostitution, dancing, frivolous behavior, licentiousness Calvinism formed the basis of Puritanism and the inspiration for Protestant sects known for asceticism like the Amish, Mennonites and Shakers
17AnabaptistsMade up of poor, urban people distrustful of the churchFollow the Bible literallyBaptism for adults, not childrenTook no oaths, fought in no wars, were pacifists, refused to perform public services, antisocial behaviorWere widely persecuted! Many emigrated to the New World.
18Henry VIII and English Protestantism: Rise of AnglicanismHenry VIII had 6 wives, all in the quest for a male heir. The Pope refused to grant