The Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter Reformation

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1517 - 1555. The Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter Reformation. The Wealth of the Roman Catholic Church was obtained in many ways: . Gifts. Pilgrimages. Tithing. Selling of Relics. Indulgences. The Great Schism - (Western Schism or Papal Schism). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter Reformation1517 - 1555The Wealth of the Roman Catholic Church was obtained in many ways: IndulgencesSelling of RelicsPilgrimages TithingGifts

The Great Schism - (Western Schism or Papal Schism)Split in the Roman Catholic Church resulting in two sitting Popes at the Same time.One in Rome, Italy and one in Avignon, France.What is the result of this split?

5Religious allegiance during Great Schism 1378-1420ObjectiveTo understand the causes of the split in Western ChristianityTo understand the underlying differences between Catholicism and ProtestantismTo understand the results and relevance of the Protestant Reformation in Western society6The Catholic ChurchHeaded by the Pope in Rome, The Seven SacramentsAll clergy take vows of celibacy (stay unmarried)7Seven Sacraments: baptism, holy communion, confirmation, holy matrimony, holy orders, penance, last ritesJohn Wycliffe 1320-1384 EnglishmanCritiques of organized churchNo scriptural basis for papal claims of earthly powerBible should be a Christians sole authorityAsk what happened to him after he died!

Jan Hus 1373-1415 Religious thinker, philosopher, reformerDemanded reform of the ChurchFollowers became known as Hussites

Erasmus 1466-1536Dutch humanistTraveled widely England, Paris, ItalyFirst to truly utilize power of pressCriticized corruption in the ChurchPromoted Christians reading the Bible directlyDid not advocate separation from the Church

Martin Luther (1483-1546)Born in 1483 in Eisleben, Germany, Joined the Order of Saint Augustine in 1505 and became a monkMoved to Wittenberg in 1511

11Luther came to the decision to be a monk when he traveled one night during a lightning storm. He was so frightened that he made a vow that if he survived the storm, he would enter a monastery. His decision to become a monk was a disappointment to his father.Martin Luther

Salvation comes from Gods gift of free grace.Do Now:

What are indulgences? What do you believe was the main cause of the Reformation? When did the reformation begin? Do you think people were tired of the Roman Catholic Churches control or its lack of change? The Catholic Church in 1500The Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in EuropeMass performed in LatinIn charge of education and held the monopoly on informationHeld a great deal of propertyCorruption in the Church14Germany in 1500Not one nation, a patchwork of independent states of the Holy Roman EmpireRuled by figurehead EmperorCharles V15Charles V 1519 - 1556HREKing of SpainMost powerful Monarch in EuropeWho were his grand parents?Who is his aunt?

Luthers Problems with the Catholic ChurchLuther had two major problems with the Catholic church:IndulgencesJustificationOther problems communion, services in Latin, celibacy among the clergyRole of Scripture18Indulgences:Indulgences are ways to get out of punishment in Purgatory. In the Catholic Church, even after going to the priest for absolution at confession, people enter Purgatory after they die. Purgatory is neither Heaven nor Hell, but a place of temporary punishment where souls go before entering Heaven. Indulgences were suppose to shorten that time in Purgatory by prayers or good works. However, by 1500, indulgences were abused and turned into cash donations to the Church. Rich people gave lots of money for forgiveness of past and future sins. Basically, indulgences became a fundraising activity for the Catholic Church. John Tetzel, a notorious priest who offered Indulgences had a slogan: As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from Purgatory springs.

Justification:The Catholic Church believes that in order to be saved, i.e., go to Heaven, a person had to do good works, go through the seven sacraments, etc. However, Luther came to the conclusion that because God is perfect, nothing we do can ever be good enough for God. So, instead, he came to the conclusion that it was not by good works that we earn Gods favor, but by believing and trusting in God.

Communion: Transubstantiation vs. ConsubstantiationThe Catholic Church believes that during communion, which recreates the Last Supper, the bread and wine become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, made possible by the priest.

Protestants believe in consubstantiation, that Jesus is present during communion, but the bread and wine are only symbolic of the Last Supper.Luthers Showdown with the Catholic ChurchLuthers writings in 1520 gain the attention of the religious and political authorities

On June 15, 1520 Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull Luther declared a heretic19The Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation called upon the German nobility to make reforms in the Catholic Church and to end the Churchs influence in Germany. The Babylonian Captivity attacked the seven sacraments and argued that only baptism and holy communion were biblical. The Babylonian Captivity argued that Scripture has the final authority over the Pope. Freedom of a Christian argued for justification by faith alone.The Protestant Reformation SpreadsLuthers ideas inspire Peasants Revolt in Germany in 1525CausesMain IssuesResponse20The Protestant Reformation SpreadsReformers begin to rise in other countries

Ulrich Zwingli

John Calvin21Protestants begin public education, on the idea that in order to gain salvation, everybody must learn to read the word of God.Ulrich ZwingliA Swiss reformerAnti-Baptist

John Calvin

Geneva1536 Calvin is driven from Geneva1541 Calvin is asked to return to Geneva and set up his religionConsistory the body to make sure the word of god was preached correctly of Calvinist Geneva, 6 pastors and twelve elders.The ConsistoryThe consistory encouraged people to report any kinds of misbehaving, such as adultery, fighting, dancing, and card playing, gambling, and laughing in church. You had to go to church!

CalvinismDoctrine of PredestinationGod has chosen some individuals to be saved, not everyone is going to be saved.Not everyone is going to heaven.God knows who is saved and who is not.

PredestinationThere is nothing that one can to change fate.None of the chosen have done anything to be chosen, they just were the lucky god chose for the sake of his son, Jesus.

PredestinationIf you are saved act any way you want?Those who are saved would not act un-virtuous since god was in their heart.Plus those who are saved act even more virtuous searching for clues to their salvation.The Puritans who went to Plymouth were Calvinists.

The Protestant Reformation SpreadsPolitical consequences of the Reformation:European rulers convert to ProtestantismWars of ReligionCatholics vs. ProtestantsPeace of Augsburg - 1555Lutheranism and Catholicism allowed in the HREPrinces can choose the faith of their territory29It is important to note that the Lutherans were recognized but not other Protestant denomination like the Calvinists.Abdication of Charles V/I1555 he abdicates his title of King of Spain and the HRESpain is given to his son PhilipHRE given to his brother FerdinandBoth lands still run by the Hapsburg family, but not one united KingdomWho got the better deal?The English ReformationWars of the Roses 1455 to 1485Civil WarHouse of TutorHenry VII2 SonsArthurHenry2 Daughters

Henry VIII1509 - 1547Born 1491What do you know about him?

Henry VIIINot always out of shapeIn his 20 very fit and known for his strength

Reaction to the ReformationDefender of the FaithAttacked Luther in writingSir Thomas MoreDevout Catholic

Wives of HenryWhy is he famous for his wives?6 WivesDivorced 2Beheaded 21 dies1 out lived him

Catherine of AragonBorn 1486Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of SpainAunt of Charles V/I King of Spain and the HRE

Marriage to CatherineWhy was it in the Popes best interest for Henry to marry Catherine?What is the issue with her marriage to Arthur?Is it wrong to marry your brothers widow?

Catherine of AragonMarried for 24 years1 Child a daughter named MaryWhat is the problem in this happy marriage?Papal DispensationDenied?

Anne BoleynBorn 1507Married Henry 1533Anne of 1000 DaysDaughter ElisabethWhat must Henry do in order to marry Anne?

AnglicanismThe Church of EnglandCatholic Light Robin WilliamsVery similar to Catholicism except no PopeThe Monarch is the Head of the ChurchThe Arch-Bishop of Canterbury is the Clergy running the ChurchProtestant DenominationFall of AnneAccused of AdulteryTreason?Who would gain from Annes fall?

Tower of London

Execution of Anne

Jane SeymourBorn 1508Married Henry 1536Son EdwardDies of complications from Child Birth

The Three Remaining WivesAnne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

Henry VIIIDies in 1547Who is the next ruler of England? Why not Mary?What about the Catholic Protestant issues?

Edward VIBorn 1537Reign 1547 1553King at the age of 9Dies at the age of 15Who will be the next monarch of England?

IssuesWhy did the nobles of England support Henry's conversion to Protestantism?$$$$$ Wealth $$$$$

Legitimacy?

Usurp the Crown!

Jane GreyGrand Niece of Henry VIIIProtestantQueen of the Nine DaysLegitimacy!

Jane Greys Execution

Queen MaryBorn 1516Reign 1553 1558Protestant or Catholic?Issue for EnglandWife of Philip IIWho are his grand mother and her mother?

Queen Elisabeth IBorn 1533Reign 1558 -1603Catholic or Protestant?Golden Age For England

The Protestant ReformationWhat effects did the Protestant Reformation have on the political, economic and social influence of the RCC? What effects did the Protestant Reformation have on the political, economic and social structure of WE at the time? What options did the RCC have to deal with the widespread heresy