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The Protestant Reformation Religious Conflict and Struggle in Western Europe (1517-1648)

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  • The Protestant Reformation Religious Conflict and Struggle in Western Europe (1517-1648)
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  • I.Pre-Luther Catholic Reformers: John Wycliff (1330-1384) English theologian. He declared the Bible to be the sole source of faith. He was the first to translate it into English in 1380-1381. Wycliffe demanded the absolute poverty of the Church.
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  • Pre-Luther Catholic Reformers: Jan Hus (1370-1415) Born in Bohemia (Czech Republic) / died in GermanyBorn in Bohemia (Czech Republic) / died in Germany Highly influenced by Wycliffs works. To Wycliffes works he added his opposition to indulgences.Highly influenced by Wycliffs works. To Wycliffes works he added his opposition to indulgences. Excommunicated twice for his teachings (1411 & 1412). Burned at the stake in 1415.Excommunicated twice for his teachings (1411 & 1412). Burned at the stake in 1415.
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  • Preparing to Burn Jan Hus at the Stake, 1415
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  • Martin Luther (1483-1546) - The Church of Rome, formerly the most holy of all churches, has become the most lawless den of thieves, the most shameless of all brothels, the very kingdom of sin, death, and hell; so that not even Antichrist, if he were to come, could devise any addition to its wickedness. Luther letter to Pope Leo X (Freedom of a Christian)
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  • Luther and His Beliefs Luther lived in chronic conviction that he was damned. The means offered by the church to allay such fears of spiritual anguish the sacraments prayer, attendance at Mass, gave him no satisfaction.Luther lived in chronic conviction that he was damned. The means offered by the church to allay such fears of spiritual anguish the sacraments prayer, attendance at Mass, gave him no satisfaction. He became even more pessimistic after a trip to Rome where he found the capital of Catholicism mired in corruption.He became even more pessimistic after a trip to Rome where he found the capital of Catholicism mired in corruption.
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  • Luther and His Beliefs From a reading and pondering of St. Paul (Romans I, 17) the just shall live by faith he discovers that it is not the Church, but his own individual faith that will guarantee his salvation.From a reading and pondering of St. Paul (Romans I, 17) the just shall live by faith he discovers that it is not the Church, but his own individual faith that will guarantee his salvation.
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  • Luther and His Beliefs 1517 In response to the indulgences, Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg.1517 In response to the indulgences, Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg. Luther held that, after confession, the sinner is freed of his burden not by the priests absolution, but by inner grace and faith alone. Luther held that, after confession, the sinner is freed of his burden not by the priests absolution, but by inner grace and faith alone.
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  • Luther vs. Pope Leo X "he is richer than Croesus, he would do better to sell St Peters and give the money to the poor people..."
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  • Luther and His Beliefs Luther held that there was no high church authority to define true Christian belief. Each individual might read the Bible and freely make his own interpretation according to his own conscience. Luther urged Germans to find Christian truth in the Bible themselves.
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  • Luther and His Beliefs He denounced reliance on fasts, pilgrimages, saints, and Masses. He reduced the 7 sacraments to 2 baptism and the communion.He denounced reliance on fasts, pilgrimages, saints, and Masses. He reduced the 7 sacraments to 2 baptism and the communion. He declared that the clergy should marry.He declared that the clergy should marry. To drive through his church reforms, denying the clergy an influence over them, Luther called on the princes of Germany to help.To drive through his church reforms, denying the clergy an influence over them, Luther called on the princes of Germany to help.
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  • Luther and His Beliefs Christian liberty was an internal freedom, purely spiritual, known only to God. In worldly matters, the good Christian owed a perfect obedience to established authority.
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  • Economic Causes of the Reformation 1.Middle Class * Unhappy paying tithe to Rome * Complained about Church ownership of land 2. Nobles * Many converted to Lutheranism to confiscate land belonging to Catholic Church * The Catholic Church was the largest landowner in the Holy Roman Empire: 1/7 of the land.
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  • Political Reasons for the Protestant Reformation The Reformation added power and wealth to the kings or the territorial princes from:The Reformation added power and wealth to the kings or the territorial princes from: 1. the Roman Catholic Church 2. the Holy Roman Empire Many wanted to gain independence so they joined Luthers movementMany wanted to gain independence so they joined Luthers movement
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  • The Peasant Wars, 1525 Led by ex-priest Thomas MuntzerLed by ex-priest Thomas Muntzer Causes:Causes: 1) Peasants paid two taxes: 1 to their lord and 1 to the Church. 2) Wanted the abolition of serfdom Results:Results: 1) Luther condemned the rebel peasants. 2) Catholics and reformers joined together to crush rebellion 3) More than 100,000 were killed, maimed, imprisoned or exiled.
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  • Decline of the Roman Catholic Church Cause of the Protestant Reformation 1.Corruption, opulence, moral degradation of the Catholic Church 2.Renaissance emphasis on secular achievements of the individual 3.Scientific Revolution Scientific discoveries challenge the long-standing teachings of the Church. 4. Rise of the nation-state and strong central governments in Europe - Rise of the monarchies 5. Protestant Reformation - Luther taught that people dont need the help of clergy or the Church for salvation. Salvation comes from the Bible.
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  • Catholic Church Response to Luther Pope Leo X accused Luther of Heresy and excommunicated him. Pope summoned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to quiet Luther. He summoned him to retract his criticisms at the Diet of Worms (1521). Luther argued with theologians for a week. Luther hoped he could convert Charles who presided over the Diet. Luther was protected by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. While under protection, Luther translates the Bible into German. His ideas, and the German translation of the Bible spread as a result of the printing press.
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  • Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521) "Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen."
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  • Charles V (1500-1558) Holy Roman Emperor (ruled 1519-1556) Charles needed the support of the German princes against:Charles needed the support of the German princes against: 1. France (Hapsburg-Valois Wars (1521-1544) 2. Ottoman risk from the East.
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  • Switzerlands Reformation 1.Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) * Established his headquarters in Zurich in 1520. Beliefs: * Wanted to create a strict theocratic government in Zurich where religious values were infused in every aspect of political and social life. * Believed eucharist was a sign of Christs union with believers. Luther thought believed that Christ was truly and symbolically present in this sacrament.
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  • Switzerlands Reformation 2. Anabaptists Believed that only adults had the free will to truly understand and accept baptism and therefore had to be rebaptized (Anabaptism means rebaptism).Believed that only adults had the free will to truly understand and accept baptism and therefore had to be rebaptized (Anabaptism means rebaptism). They refused to aknowledge the authority of the courts and refused to bear arms or swear oaths of allegiance.They refused to aknowledge the authority of the courts and refused to bear arms or swear oaths of allegiance.
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  • Switzerlands Reformation 3. John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) (1509-1564) * Born in France but because of religious persecution of non- Catholics, he went to Geneva, Switzerland. Beliefs: No Christian is guaranteed salvation. Believed every person was predestined to either go to heaven or hell by God before they were born.No Christian is guaranteed salvation. Believed every person was predestined to either go to heaven or hell by God before they were born. Calvinists demanded strict discipline from their followers.Calvinists demanded strict discipline from their followers. Geneva became a theocratic community where dissent was forbidden.Geneva became a theocratic community where dissent was forbidden.
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  • Protestant Values 1.Encouraged reading the Bible in the vernacular. 2. Protestant reformers set up schools to educate children in the new religious values. 3. Protestant reformers focused on poor relief. 4. Protestant Work Ethic linked hard work and prosperity with piety and divine providence and considered laziness a sign of immorality.
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  • The English Reformation Henry VIII (1491-1547) was originally strongly against the Protestant Reform

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