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The Protestant Reformation - Weebly ... The Protestant Reformation 1517-1648. The Protestant Reformation Caused by a questioning (protest) of the Church in Northern Europe i. The selling

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  • The Protestant Reformation 1517-1648

  • The Protestant Reformation  Caused by a questioning (protest) of the Church in

    Northern Europe

    i. The selling of indulgences

    a. $$$ for pardoning of sins

  • Purgatory

    during the crusades,

    Pope Urban


    indulgences for

    people who took the

    cross to fight

  • Martin Luther  Credited with beginning the


     German monk upset with the

    selling of indulgences

     Came up with a list of 95

    arguments against indulgences –

    known as 95 Theses

  • 95 Theses  Nailed them to a church door in

    Wittenberg, Germany on October 31,

    1517 (legend says so anyhow…)

     Spark of The Reformation

     They argued against Church abuses,

    but focused on the indulgences

  • 95 Theses  Main ideas of the 95 Theses:

    1. Faith alone will get you to


    2. No indulgences

    3. People can read and interpret

    the Bible themselves

    4. Only two true sacraments

    a. Baptism

    b. Marriage

  • 95 Theses  Pope Leo X excommunicated

    Luther from the Roman

    Catholic Church for his writings

     Followers of Luther became

    known as Lutherans

     First Protestant sect (branch)

     Luther continued to criticize the

    Church until his death in 1546


  • Division of Christianity

  • John Calvin

     A priest from France who used

    Luther’s example to question

    the Church

     Forced to flee France and set up

    a theocracy in Geneva,


     Followers became known as


  • John Calvin

     Calvinism was rooted in the

    belief of predestination

    i. People are divided into Sinners

    and Saints at birth

    a. Saints = Heaven

    b. Sinners = Hell

    ii. How you live your life

    determined which one you were

    destined for

  • Calvinism vs Lutheranism

    Calvinism Lutheranism

    Salvation is granted to only chosen ones Anyone can receive Salvation if they have Faith

    The only religious authority is the Bible There are “representatives” that have the authority

    The blood and the body of Jesus Christ have only

    spiritual presence in Eucharist (bread and wine)

    The blood and the body of Jesus Christ have actual

    physical presence in Eucharist (bread and wine)

    Sovereignty of God is important Sovereignty of God is not of utmost importance

    Concept of Predestination is important Predestination is not important

  • The Printing Press

     First used by Johann Gutenburg

    in 1456 – Germany

     First book was a Bible

     Used moveable type

  • The Printing Press

     Resulted in:

    1. More books available (cheaper)

    2. Increase in literacy

    3. Ideas and education to spread


    a. Luther’s 95 Theses

  • The Counter (Catholic) Reformation

     An attempt by the Roman Catholic Church to

    stop the spread of Protestantism

     Needed to stop the loss of the tithe ($$$)

     The Council of Trent – 1545

    1. Reaffirmed traditional Catholicism

    a. Seven sacraments, Latin, Church interpreting Bible

    2. Forbid sale of indulgences

  • The Peace of Westphalia  The Reformation led to

    over 100 years of war between Protestants and Catholics

     Thirty Years’ War in Germany was worst of these (1618-1648)

     War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

     Traditionally viewed as the end of the Reformation

  • Effects of the Reformation

    1. Formation of Protestant Churches

    2. Religious and Political Divisions in Europe

    a. Leads people to seek new lands for their religions

    3. Religious Conflicts: Catholics vs. Protestants

  • The English Reformation A Tale of Family Drama and Intrigue

    // //

  • King Henry VIII

    I. King Henry VIII wants an annulment (divorce) from

    wife Catherine

    a. He needed a male heir and she only had Mary


    b. Fell in love with Anne Boleyn

    c. Pope refused to give him an annulment

  • King Henry VIII

    II. Henry breaks with the Roman Catholic Church

    a. He starts his own Church of England (Anglican


    b. Gets his annulment and marries Anne Boleyn

    i. Their daughter is Elizabeth

    1. Anne Boleyn is beheaded for not

    having a son's_church,_Erwarton,'s_church,_Erwarton,

  • King Henry VIII

    c. 1534 – Parliament passes the Acts of Supremacy

    i. Makes English ruler the head of English

    (Anglican) Church

    1. Blend of Catholic and Protestant

  • Edward VI

    III.Edward VI takes over when Henry VIII dies

    a. Only nine years old

    i. He makes the Anglican Church completely


    Uncle Edward had the real power over Edward VI’s reign

  • Mary Tudor

    IV. Mary Tudor takes over when Edward dies (in his

    teens) – he was her half-brother

    a. She moves the Anglican Church back to Catholic

    b. Known as “Bloody Mary” for killing Protestants

    c. Dies without having children