The Reds are invading

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The Reds are invading. Objective: Analyze the role of Communism in America Std 11.9.3a&b. The Second Red Scare. Feared that Communism would take over the world 1949 – China becomes Communist 1949 – Russia builds their own nuclear bomb - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Reds are invadingObjective: Analyze the role of Communism in AmericaStd 11.9.3a&bThe Second Red ScareFeared that Communism would take over the world1949 China becomes Communist1949 Russia builds their own nuclear bomb1950 Communist North Korea tries to defeat South Korea and the U.S. NK receives military and financial help from the Soviet Union and China

Communism in AmericaGreat Depression - Americans joined the Communist Party, legal organizationDuring and after WWII, the economy improvedTrust Stalin (No Way!!!)Communists quit their support of the partypasts came back to haunt them

Loyalty ProgramsFederal Employee Loyalty Program in 1947New government employees were checked for possible disloyaltyAccusation enough to get someone fired or prevented from getting a jobMillions were investigated, several hundred removed from their jobs, few arrests

Pledge of Allegiance????Communist Spies in AmericaAlger Hiss State Department official accused of being a spy convicted of perjury (lying to the court)Ethel and Julius Rosenberg accused of passing atomic secrets convicted and then executed in 1953Recently released secret Soviet records indicate that Hiss and Julius Rosenberg were guilty, while Ethel was probably innocent

H.U.A.C.The House Un-Americans Activities Committee investigated Communist infiltration of Government agencies and the Hollywood movie industryMany in Hollywood used to be, or still were Communists Hollywood & Government encouragement, had even made pro-Soviet Union films during the warUncle Joe was considered to be a friend of America

Hollywood writers and directors were called before the CommitteeWitnesses made outrageous and unsubstantiated accusationsAre you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?Hollywood 10 refused to answer any questions, invoking their Constitutional RightsThey had to serve jail terms for 6 months to a yearMovie studios compiled a blacklist Names who should not be hired because of possible Communist ties or because they opposed the idea of a blacklist

The Texas State Legislature made it a felony to belong to the Communist Party up to 20 years in prisonThe Texas Governor threatened to veto the bill he thought the punishment should have been deathIn New York city, citizens had to pledge their loyalty for a fishing licenseIn Indiana, professional wrestlers were required to take a loyalty oathIn 1954, it became illegal to be a Communist the bill passed Congress by a combined vote of 365 2

ExamplesJoseph McCarthyObjective: Analyze the role of Communism in AmericaStd 11.9.3a&b

Joseph McCarthyA. Tailgunner JoeSenator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin elected 19461950 feared reelection in 1952Tailgunner Joe: WWII vet, but a low level paper pusher in intelligenceIdeas against CommunismOpposed public housing (in support of real estate cos.)Publicly defended Nazi war criminals on trial for death (to woo German Americans

Red-Baiting to Power

Feb. 1950: Wheeling, WV, speech before Womens Republican ClubReason for US impotence in containment: traitors collaborating w/enemy, State Department overrun w/Communist spiesHolds up a piece of paper and claims 205 names# came from a HUAC list of accused officialsAppeal of McCarthyism for Public

1. Appealed to a variety of fears (catch-all all negative changes after WWII: women, blacks, union activism, economic slump), never able to point to a specific action: accusations empty, but seemed to have substance2. Americans wanted to believe (conspiracy mind-set helps to make sense of a complicated world)3. Anti-communism had deep roots in American history and psyche (always more concerned about the Left than the Right; 1st Red Scare)

The End of McCarthyIn the end, presented a list of only 9 names (and only 4 in State Dept.) to Senate Committee denounced as a fraud and hoaxSaved when chief opponent, Millard Tydings (D. MD) lost seat in election proof of powerWith election of Ike in 52, Republicans hoped he would give it up (almost no one really believed there were spies election year tactic): didntThe Downfall of McCarthyFamous broadcaster Edward R. Murrow publicly challenged McCarthys character and accusation on his national television showMcCarthy charged members of the Army of being Communist sympathizers he had gone too farMillions of Americans watched McCarthy crumble in the Army-McCarthy hearings over a span of several weeksThe word McCarthyism has come to mean unfair and untrue accusations to make a person look bad