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THE REFORMATION, COUNTER REFORMATION AND RELIGIOUS WARS. NAISBITT/FREILER. THE BIBLE AND THE REFORMATION. Gutenberg Bible. In the early 16 th century, Europeans developed a consuming passion for the Bible - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



  • THE BIBLE AND THE REFORMATIONIn the early 16th century, Europeans developed a consuming passion for the BibleScriptures rolled off printing presses in all languages and forms from the large Gutenberg Bibles to small pocket Bibles for soldiersWhen Martin Luther created a German translation, his Bible became an immediate best seller

    Gutenberg BibleLuther Bible

  • A REFORM IMPULSEA renewed spiritually and desire to change many of the traditional practices of the Roman Catholic Church was sweeping through EuropeThe demand for reform came from within the Church and from outside the ChurchThe inspiration for reform was based on the Word of God vernacular Bibles allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own languages

  • THE BIG PICTUREIn the early 16th century Europeans experienced one of the greatest of all religious rebirths: the Protestant ReformationThe Reformation was a movement to purify the Catholic Church that resulted in the creation of new denominations collectively known as Protestants from their protest against the Church

  • THE INTELLECTUAL REFORMATIONIf new ideas about religion were to supplant old ones, they had to communicated That was made possible with the invention of the printing press which appeared in the late 15th century in Germany and spread across Europe rapidlyThe development of printing did not cause religious reform, but reform would have been difficult to achieve without it

  • THE PRINTING REVOLUTIONThe printing revolution represents one of the true technological revolutions in Western history it was rated the #1 event of the last millennium in a Life Magazine special in 2000Printing was not invented per se, but rather was achieved through progress in related industries such as papermaking and goldsmithing

  • PAPER PLAYS KEY ROLESheepskin and calfskin were used for manuscripts and book reproductionThis process was slow and expensive In the early 15th century paper made from linen rags were substituted and made for better impressions and a smoother surface An early paper mill

  • PRINTING SPREADS RAPIDLYOnce it began, printing spread quicklyBy 1480, more than 110 towns had established presses, most in Italy and GermanyBy 1500, Venice and Paris were the centers of the industryMost of the subject matter was religious or classical


    In the first 40 years after the presses began, as many as 20,000,000 books were producedPrinting changed the habits of teachers and students, and altered the way governments did businessIt affected legal training and proceedingsPrinting standardized languages and furthered scienceIt created an international intellectual community and increased the value of ideas and thinkingPrinting allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own language

  • CHRISTIAN HUMANISMBy the beginning of the 16th century, the force of humanism was felt strongly in northern and western Europe As Italian humanism moved northward it merged with traditional theological teachingThe combination became a powerful intellectual movement known as Christian humanism

  • ITALIAN HUMANISM VS. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM Italian intellectual interests were largely secular subjects, especially classical languages and textsChristian, or Northern humanists, applied the techniques to the study and translation of Christian textsFurthermore, Christian humanism was a program of reform rather than philosophy

  • REFORM THROUGH EDUCATIONChristian humanism aimed to make better Christians through better educationHumanists founded schools for girls and advocated that they be trained in the same subjects as boysSchools now trained many who were not destined for careers in the Church

  • ERASMUS: THE CHRISTIAN HUMANISTThe man most closely associated with Christian Humanism was Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam Educated by the Brethren of Common Life, Erasmus had a quick wit and an enormous intellectHe sought to bring the gospel to all: The doctrine of Christ casts aside no age, no sex, no fortune or position in life. It keeps no one at a distance.Erasmus 1466-1536

  • IN PRAISE OF FOLLYErasmuss satire, Praise of Folly (1509), was one of the first best sellers in publishing history The book focused on the abuses in the Catholic Church through his dialogue with his friend Thomas MoreErasmus was especially critical of the clergy saying, . . . they are a style of man who show themselves exceeding supercilious and irritable . . .

  • ERASMUS TRANSLATES BIBLEErasmus was called the father of biblical criticism for his attacks upon the Scholastics, superstition, and the pretensions of the ChurchErasmuss Greek translation of the New Testament appeared in 1516Erasmus's text served as the foundation for critical editions of the Greek New Testament into the modern eraDurer

  • THE LUTHERAN REFORMATIONBy the early 16th century, abuses in the Catholic Church were causing many to call out for reformCharges against the clergy included simony (the selling of church offices), pluralism (holding more than one church office), and absenteeism

  • INDULGENCES Indulgences came to viewed as pardons to the individual who bought themTherefore, one could theoretically buy their way out of purgatoryIndulgences were bought by the living to cleanse the sins of the dead, and some people even bought indulgences in anticipation of sins they had not yet committed

  • WHAT WERE INDULGENCES? Indulgences were a means to spend less time in purgatoryAt this time the worry was not going to hell, but spending a long time in purgatory. By purchasing an indulgence, you could get out of purgatory soonerIndulgences also were extraordinarily important for the papacy as a major source of incomeIndulgences were used to finance major building projects

  • INDULGENCES BECOME BIG BUSINESSIndulgences were one of the first items printed on Gutenbergs pressPopes used special occasions to offer indulgences for papal projects (fundraisers)Other indulgences were licensed locally, usually at shrines of saints or at churches that contained relicsRelics

  • RELICS BECOME INCREASINGLY POPULARFrederick III, the Wise (1463-1525), ruler of Saxony, was one of the largest collectors of relicsHe had 17,000 items, including a branch of Moses burning bush, straw from Christs manger, and 35 fragments of the true crossTaken as a whole, his relics carried remission for sins that would have otherwise taken equal to 250,000 years in purgatory

  • TETZEL SELLS INDULGENCES In 1517, the Pope was offering a special indulgence to finance the rebuilding of the St. Peters BasilicaA Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel was hired to promote the latest indulgenceBy October, Tetzel was nearing Wittenberg Castle and a professor at the local college chose that night to post his famous 95 theses on castle church doorTetzelThe Showdown

  • LUTHER CHALLENGES INDULGENCESBy the fall of 1517, the frenzy to buy indulgences had prompted some priests and monks to criticize the practiceAmong his 95 Theses was a scathing indictment of the practice of selling indulgencesHis theses were immediately translated into German and spread throughout the HRE

    Luthers 95 Theses

  • ON LUTHERA gifted student, Luther experienced a scare early in life when he was almost struck by lightningHe then entered a monastery and was ordained in 1507He continued his education and received a doctorate and was appointed to the theology faculty at Wittenberg in 1512

  • LUTHER IN TURMOILDespite being a successful preacher and teacher, Luther was tortured by his own sense of sinfulnessLuther: I was one who terribly feared the last judgment and who nevertheless with all my heart wished to be saved.No amount of good works could overcome Luthers feelings of guilt for his own sins

    Luther was tormented about his own salvation

  • THOU SHALL LIVE BY FAITHLuthers reading of Saint Pauls words, Thou shall live by faith, provided the answer to his tormentLuther believed that through Gods grace, salvation was not a burden but a gift from a merciful God Salvation could not be earned, but was given freely; Sola Fida

    Sola fida (by faith alone) was one of Luthers key tenets

  • LUTHERS KEY TENETSThe second major tenet of Luthers was Sola Scriptura (by word alone)Faith in Gods mercy came only from the knowledge and contemplation of the word of God (Bible)All that was needed to understand Gods mercy was contained in the BibleLuther believed in only two of the seven sacramentsBaptismCommunion


    Sola gratia is a Luther doctrine which teaches that God extends love and favor to sinners on the basis of the atonement accomplished through the death and resurrection of Jesus and the merit of Christ's righteousnessMan, being sinful, does not earn or deserve the love and favor of God; rather, God chooses to give that which man does not meritIt is God's grace (Sola gartia) that saves us through faith

  • PRIESTHOOD OF ALL BELIEVERSLuther thought that all who believed in Gods righteousness were equal in Gods eyesNeither pope nor priest, neither monk or nun, could achieve a higher level of spirituality than the ordinary citizenMinisters and preachers were valuable, but could not confer faith


    The doctrine of justification by faith alone meant the RCCs emphasis on good works and sacraments were called into questionLuthers doctrine of faith through individual biblical study weakened the authority of the clergyFinally, his doctrine of equality of all believers struck at t