THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL ... THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, TRUST, AND

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  • THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, TRUST, AND ROLE BREADTH SELF-EFFICACY

    Gary J. Ruder

    Dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    in

    Human Development

    Albert Wiswell, Chair Gabriella Belli

    Marcie Boucouvalas Norman Endlich Linda Morris

    March, 2003 Falls Church, Virginia

    Key Words: Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, Interactional Justice, Proactive Behavior

  • THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, TRUST, AND ROLE BREADTH SELF-EFFICACY

    Gary J. Ruder

    Committee Chairperson: Albert K. Wiswell Human Development

    (Abstract)

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether organizational practices—fairness

    (also known as organizational justice) and trust—contribute to the enhancement of role breadth

    self-efficacy (RBSE), a form of proactive behavior. The sample consisted of 226 white-collar

    professionals in large and small organizations. Approximately 70% held a college degree.

    An a priori path model based on theoretical literature was generated to represent causal

    relationships among the variables. Two paths were explored: a) the relationship among

    procedural justice, trust in organization, and RBSE; and b) the relationship among interactional

    justice, trust in supervisor, and RBSE.

    Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between procedural justice and

    trust in organization. The relationships between procedural justice and RBSE and trust in

    organization and RBSE were not significant. Interactional justice had a statistically significant

    relationship with trust in supervisor, but not with RBSE. The relationship between trust in

    supervisor and RBSE was not significant. Respondents expressed a strong trust in their

    organization, and a stronger trust in their immediate supervisor.

    The most important discovery in this study was the statistically significant relationship

    between education and RBSE. Individuals with graduate degrees reported the highest level of

    RBSE, followed by people with Bachelor’s degrees. Globalization and technology are fueling

    demands for ever-increasing employee skills and higher levels of education. Organizations need

    highly educated, proactive individuals in order to be successful. Future research should continue

    to investigate variables and constructs that may enhance RBSE in the workplace.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1

    Proactive Behavior ............................................................................................................. 2

    Role Breadth Self-Efficacy (RBSE) ...................................................................... 3

    Social Exchange Theory, Norm of Reciprocity and RBSE ................................... 4

    Organizational Justice ............................................................................................ 5

    Trust ....................................................................................................................... 7

    Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................... 8

    Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................... 9

    Scope and Delimitations .................................................................................................. 12

    Definition of Terms .......................................................................................................... 12

    Organization of this Manuscript ...................................................................................... 13

    CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............................................................... 14

    Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 14

    Proactive Behavior ........................................................................................................... 14

    Proactive Behavior Constructs ......................................................................................... 16

    Proactive Personality ............................................................................................ 16

    Personal Initiative ................................................................................................. 16

    RBSE .................................................................................................................... 17

    Taking Charge ...................................................................................................... 18

    Context Specific Proactive Behaviors ............................................................................. 19

    Socialization ......................................................................................................... 20

    Proactive Feedback Seeking ................................................................................ 20

    Issue Selling ......................................................................................................... 21

    Innovation ............................................................................................................ 21

    Career Management ............................................................................................. 22

    Coping With Stress .............................................................................................. 23

    Other Proactive Behaviors ............................................................................................... 23

  • iv

    Self-Management ................................................................................................. 23

    Impression Management ...................................................................................... 24

    Social Cognition and Self-Efficacy ...................................................................... 24

    Goal Setting .......................................................................................................... 25

    Trust ................................................................................................................................. 25

    Zand’s Spiral Model of Trust ............................................................................... 26

    Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman’s Proposed Model of Trust ................................. 27

    Whitener, Brodt, Korsgaard, and Werner’s Exchange Framework of

    Initiating Managerial Trustworthy Behavior ................................................... 29

    Organizational Justice ...................................................................................................... 32

    Distributive Justice ............................................................................................... 32

    Procedural Justice ................................................................................................ 33

    Interactional Justice .............................................................................................. 34

    Organizational Justice Meta-Analyses ................................................................. 34

    Research Summary .......................................................................................................... 39

    CHAPTER III: METHOD ........................................................................................................ 40

    Path Model ....................................................................................................................... 40

    Path Diagrams ...................................................................................................... 41

    Hypotheses ........................................................................................................... 41

    Instrumentation ................................................................................................................ 42

    Organizational Justice .......................................................................................... 42

    Distributive Justice Index ..................................................................................... 42

    Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice Measures ........................................ 43

    Trust ..................................................................................................................... 43

    Role Breadth Self-Efficacy (RBSE) .................................................................... 45

    Demographic Data ........................................................................................................... 47

    Sample .............................................................................................................................. 47

    Data Collection Procedures .............................................................................................. 48

    Predictor, Criterion, and Control

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