The relationship between science and technology. Lee Fleming, Olav Sorenson (2004). INTRODUCTION. Pipeline model science discovery innovation process Science knowledge base - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The relationship between science and technologyLee Fleming, Olav Sorenson (2004)
INTRODUCTIONPipeline model science discovery innovation processScience knowledge base Science, technology, and innovationRepresent a larger universe of activities which are highly interdependent, yet distinct from each otherThe relation between science and technology is two strands of DNA which can exist independently, but cannot be truly functional until they are paired2SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (1/2)Direct source of new technological ideasEg. Bell Telephone Lab. transistor Source of engineering design tools and techniquesLarge system , , Instrumentation, laboratory techniques, and analytical methodsEg. cloud chamber superconducting magnets MRI SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (2/2)The development of human skillsEg. skill Technology assessmentEg. defensive research (hydrology)Science as a source of development strategy scientific knowledge guideline TECHNOLOGY SCIENCESource of new scientific challenges () (CMB : Cosmic Microwave Background radiation) , Bell Lab. (1965)Financial support for innovative sciencesInstrumentation and measurement techniquesEg. Long range of the electromagnetic spectrum ( ) in space technologyNew experimental techniques for knowledge transfer
THE POSITIVE EXTERNALTIES OF INNOVATTIVE ACTIVITYInvestment for scienceBasic science Public goods() vs. Free goods() (Pavit, 1991)S&T PolicyDiffusion-oriented technology policy (Germany, Switzerland, etc.) R&D , trade-off Embedded knowledge transferThe importance of personal contact and geographical proximity for technological innovationGrowing scientization of technology is likely to offset greater efficiency in formal systems of knowledge transfer from science to technologyDISCUSSION (1/3)
CTT(Canadas Technology Triangle). 650, . , IT . 7 , 5 , , , , 5 DISCUSSION (2/3) Innovation SystemCluster : , , RIS (Regional Innovation system) : CTT 5Ls (Wolfe and Gertler, 2003) (Learning), (Labour), (Location), (Leadership), (Legislation/Labs)DISCUSSION (3/3) , RIS ? . (knowledge transfer) . ? . ?RIS . ? . . ?D J, S S, H UScience as a map in technological searchLee Fleming, Olav Sorenson (2004)INTRODUCTIONBackgroundWhy do inventors draw more heavily on scientific research in these area?Science invention invention science Conceptualizing the innovationRecombination and Reconfiguration of the componentsOccurs in the process for producing substancesThe application of an existing technology to a new purposeThe relationship between the investments in scientific research and their effects on economic growthProximate linkages between scientific research and technological innovationPositive relationship between university research expenditure and local patenting ratesResearches provide strong empirical support for a link between scientific research, technological innovation, and economic growth
BackgroundWhy do inventors draw more heavily on scientific research in these area?Institutional factorsSector science invention Science technology
Why do inventors draw more heavily on scientific research in these area?Institutional factorsSector science invention 27% science , Mansfield(1995) Delay cost Electronics firms : 6% science ?Science .
Technological Components : Fundamental bits of knowledge or matter that inventors might use to build inventions
invention science investigate.Invention problem factorScience inventor invention innovation . (Gilfillan 1935; Schumpeter, 1939) component invention search search algorithm . search algorithm . haphazard search process science .
11INVENTION AS RECOMBINANT SEARCHLocal SearchInventor component Distant investigation Science as a mapScience theory , search effectiveness of search Invention ,
, Local SearchInventor component , distant investigation innovative activity
Scientific endeavorAttempts to generate and test theories Search search Effectiveness of search . Ballpark Invention encourage
12TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPESLandscapeCoupling : landscape Topology search algorithm Determinants : Number of components and The degree of interaction between those components Landscapes and SearchScience invention Science , inventor local optima LandscapeCoupling : landscape Topology search algorithm Determinants : Number of components and The degree of interaction between those components
Local search global maximum , peak trap Coupling search process invention invention
13EMPERICAL ANALYSISKey variablesScience : Patent non-patent knowledgeCoupling : Component coupling Invention usefulness : Patent Results coupling science local search Science tightly coupled invention usefulness Useful outcome inventor (variances) Invention search DISCUSSION (1/3)GEs extensive technological search
DISCUSSION (2/3) ( WEF, 2013) 148 25 12 6 08(13) 09(19) 10(22) 11(24)- : 18 22 - : 16 17
' 4 ()' 3, 5, 11. ."WEF ' ' DISCUSSION (3/3) technological local search extensive search .Q : Fast follow extensive search ?Q : science as map ? ? Extensive search ? R&D Q : R&D Extensive search ?Q : ?