The Rise of Nationalism & Sectionalism

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Please pick up a copy of Focus #14: Sectionalism from the cart T urn in Homework 7 to the box and take out Class Notes #14: The Rise of Nationalism Take the first five minutes of class to complete the warm-up questions on Focus # 14 (Quiz #3 is on Thursday) We will: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Rise of Nationalism & SectionalismPlease pick up a copy of Focus #14: Sectionalism from the cart

Turn in Homework 7 to the box and take out Class Notes #14: The Rise of Nationalism

Take the first five minutes of class to complete the warm-up questions on Focus #14 (Quiz #3 is on Thursday)

We will:*analyze how the War of 1812 and the Era of Good Feelings contributed to rising nationalism *compare and contrast regional characteristics that contributed to rising sectionalism

Warm-up Review for Quiz #31. Which amendment guarantees freedom of speech and press, among other rights?First Amendment

2. Which amendment guarantees the right to privacy?Fourth Amendment

3. What document served as the basis of our first (unsuccessful) national government?Articles of Confederation

4. What is the nickname of the clause of the Constitution that gives the Congress the power to do what is necessary and proper for the welfare of the country?

Elastic Clause

5. Which party Federalist or Republican would have liked and used that clause to its fullest?

Federalist Party

6. What legislation of 1798 threatened constitutional freedoms and helped win the White House and Congress for the Republicans in 1800?

Alien & Sedition Acts

7. What was one major issue that contributed to the War of 1812?

*Seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors*British blockade by 1811*British support for Native Americans in the WestNationalism on the Rise: The Virginia DynastyFollowing Jeffersons victory over John Adams in the Revolution of 1800, three Virginians served as president and helped to shape the new nation for a quarter century (1801-1825)

All three were Democratic-Republicans, slave owners, and lawyers. They were also good friends who lived within a days journey of each other in central Virginia.

Thomas Jefferson1801-1809

Greatest Event:Louisiana Purchase (1803)James Madison1809-1817

Greatest Event:War of 1812(1812-15)James Monroe1817-1825

Greatest Event:Monroe Doctrine (1823)American Neutrality Under ThreatWith the start of the Napoleonic Wars in 1805, British and French naval vessels resumed impressment of American sailors and seizure of cargoes bound for enemy ports

Jeffersons response was the ill-advised Embargo Act (1807) that halted all trade with foreign nations in the expectation that Britain and France would be compelled to desist and agree to negotiate with the U.S. (they didnt and New England suffered an economic depression, angering the Federalist opposition)

James Madison (Jeffersons hand-picked successor) signed Macons Bill #2 (1810) stating that, if either Britain or France agreed to respect American rights, the U.S. would cut off trade with the other country

France agreed and the U.S. cut off trade with Britain in 1811, resulting in a British blockade of U.S. ports

The War Hawks

Meanwhile, back on the trans-Appalachian frontier, Native Americans (led by such tribes as the Shawnee and Creek), resisted westward settlement by American pioneersBritain supplied the Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, with money and weaponsNewly-elected War Hawks in Congress, such as Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, called for an invasion of Canada to break the back of the British-Native American allianceCongress declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812; Madison called up the army

The War of 1812 (1813, 1814, & 1815)

Mr. Madisons War (as the Federalists called it) was a comedy of errors that almost resulted in defeat:1. Attempted invasions of Canada failed miserably2. Tecumseh wreaked havoc on the Northwest frontier, until defeated by General Harrison in late 18133. British expeditionary force occupied Washington and burned the White House and the Capitol (1814)Bright Spots (we won! - a nearly-fatal military draw): The Star-Spangled Banner (F. Scott Key)Andrew Jacksons defeat of the Creek and his victory over the British at New Orleans after the war formally ended (January 1815)Treaty of Ghent (1814) secured British recognition of American interests and ended the war status quo ante no winner, no loser

Political Nationalism: The Era of Good FeelingsNationalism increased as a result of victory in the War of 1812 and the downfall of the Federalists after the Hartford Convention (1814), where some radical Federalists proposed peace with Britain and secession from the UnionJames Monroe won overwhelming electoral college and popular majorities in the elections of 1816 and 1820Effective one-party rule resulted and lasted through Monroes presidency (1817-1825)Even former New England Federalists supported Monroe his visit to New England in 1817 inspired the phrase Era of Good Feelings

Monroes Elections: 1816, 1820

Monroe won by some of the biggest electoral college totals in U.S. political history; Federalist Party did not even exist by 1820 Note the addition of five new states between 1816 and 1820; reflects the growth of the U.S. Economic NationalismAfter the War of 1812, Americans quickly spread west, helped by a Transportation Revolution that encouraged the building of roads and canals to connect east and west (e.g. Erie Canal and National Road)In 1816, Henry Clay of Kentucky pushed for passage in Congress of the Hamiltonian American system, sought to encourage economic growth through:federal support for infrastructureprotective tariffs a new central bank (Second Bank of the United States)

Henry Clay of KentuckyJudicial Nationalism: The Marshall Court

*Chief Justice John Marshall led the Supreme Court for 35 years after his 1801 appointment by President John Adams; checked the power of the Republicans

*Marshalls Federalist views helped to establish the power of the Court as an independent branch of government and asserted the power of the federal government over the states

Marbury v. Madison (1803): established the Courts power of judicial review the ability of the Court to declare a law or action of the Congress and/or President as unconstitutional

Significant Marshall Court CasesOther decisions of the Marshall Court supported Hamiltonian views on the economy, such as the Courts defense of the Second Bank of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Marshall upheld the right of the Bank to exist (under the elastic clause) and confirmed that national law is supreme to state law (Maryland couldnt tax the Banks transactions)In Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819), Marshall ruled that the state of New Hampshire could not take over private Dartmouth College, thus supporting the rights of private corporationsIn Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Marshall ruled that only Congress had the right to regulate interstate trade under the power of the commerce clause

Diplomatic Nationalism

Americas victory in the War of 1812 was followed by several diplomatic agreements that secured the countrys borders:

*Rush-Bagot Treaty (1816): U.S./Britain demilitarize the Great Lakes*British-American Convention (1818) established the northern border at the 49th parallel*Adams-Onis Treaty (1819): with Spain, gave Florida to the U.S. and established a clear southwestern border

The Monroe DoctrineBy 1823, many colonies in Latin America had won their independence from Spain and PortugalThe U.S. wanted to be sure that European powers did not interfere in the affairs of these new countries, which would make great trading partners for the U.S.President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine to declare the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European powers and pledged that the U.S. would stay out of European conflicts; this policy became the cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy

The Missouri CompromiseIn 1820, Missouri territory petitioned to enter the Union as a slave state; Northern political resistance to this threatened to create a North-South sectional divideHenry Clay hammered out an agreement in Congress whereby Missouri would be permitted to enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state (to keep the balance between North and South in the U.S. Senate)The Compromise deal also identified the southern border of Missouri as the dividing line between slave and free territory west of the Mississippi River (with the exception of Missouri)

What is the geographic identification of the line that divides slave and free territory as a result of the compromise?How many slave and free states made up the Union after the compromise in 1821? Why was this balance so important?The Expanding American Republic by 1821secure borders and sectional balance

American Regions

By the 1820s, three distinct regions were emerging North, South, and WestWorking with your table team, cut out and match the characteristics and primary sources provided with the correct regionsThe youngest person at your table can pick up glue sticks and 2 pairs of scissors for your tableWhen you finish Part II, work together to complete the chart for Part III based on the region assigned to you

The North*growing industry (especially textile mills in New England)*first factories and mass production*urbanization (ex: New York City)*increasing immigration (especially from Germany and Ireland)*reform movements to better society, including abolition movements*support for strong national government, including the American system**benefits from the Transportation Revolution, especially the Erie Canal and sale of manufactures *Daniel Webster of Massachusetts emerged as a leading spokesman of this region

Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, one of Americasgreatest orators